Industrial pollution is a kind of pollution that is caused by harmful effect of human activity. It is quite a new type of pollution, because centuries ago it did not exist.
Industrial pollution appeared with the rapid development of the process of industrialization. People invented new technologies of production and built plants and factories that worked with the help of coal, oil and wood – resources the products of which pollute atmosphere, soil and water. With the run of time, the number of industrialized areas has increased rapidly and today it is difficult to find a non-industrialized pure territory. Industrial pollution is characterized with severe pollution of water, air and soil with the results of human activity. Such industries as mining, oil, chemical, transport, etc. cause much harm to nature, because they produce dangerous wastes that affect natural environment, human and animal health badly. Many factories and plants produce wastes that are poured into rivers, seas and oceans contaminating and polluting water. Continue reading
Narcissistic personality disorder is a personality disorder that is characterized by extreme sense of self-assertion, lack of self-awareness, exaggerated self-esteem, overestimated self-image, a great need to be in the focus of attention, and the lack of empathy.
This pathological narcissism is different from the natural narcissism we all carry on, the feeling of wanting to be liked.
Narcissistic personality disorder is lasting and can be traced back to childhood. Individuals may briefly display symptoms of the same disorder, such as during a trauma or due to a brain disease, which is called personality change.
The percentage of people with narcissistic personality disorder of varying severity is assumed to have grown in the last decades of the 20th century. Continue reading
Animal communication is the set of exchanges of information between different individuals. Intraspecific communication focuses on interaction between individuals of the same species and intersecific communication involves individuals of different species.
The biological world is full of smells, sounds, movements and electrical signals by which animals interact in different contexts such as the attraction to the partner, competition for resources, search for food… Any communication involves at least two individuals, a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter produces a signal, which is the physical medium of information. The signal causes a change in the behavior and physiological state of the receiver. The receiver can sometimes use this information to make decisions that result in a behavioral response. The response of the receiver is likely to have consequences for the survival of the transmitter as well as on his own. Continue reading
Giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. It is different from the specific expertise, which competencies are learned or acquired behaviors. Giftedness also implies skills that are thought to be innate and cannot be acquired only through educational activity, such as studies.
There are several theories regarding the definition of giftedness, its development and how it can be identified. A definition of giftedness is that person possesses an exceptional talent, which involves an inborn ability, combined with appropriate experience.
Giftedness can be general or specific. For example, an intellectually gifted individual have a remarkable aptitude for mathematics, but a limited linguistic talent. Continue reading
Psychophysics is a branch of experimental psychology, which seeks to determine the quantitative relationships between physical stimuli and their perception. Psychophysics deals with physiological senses such as sight, hearing, and touch (more rarely with smell or taste) but also with sensations such as perception of time or movement.
Gustav Fechner, author of Elemente der Psychophysik (1860) is considered to be the founder of Psychophysics. Even if his influences on the German physicists as Johann Friedrich Herbart can be traced, Fechner was the first to have undertaken a systematic mathematization of the relationship between stimulation and sensation based on the work by Ernst Weber.
Student of Fechner, influenced by the work of Hermann von Helmholtz and experimental theories the in natural sciences, German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt developed method that gave psychophysics its methodological and theoretical foundations. Continue reading
Antivirus software is a program, which actively or on demand is searching for, removing, or repairing the files that are infected by computer viruses. Modern antivirus software can detect and eliminate such harmful forms of alien execution code as trojans, spyware and worms.
Antivirus programs work primarily by checking the files for the so-called fingerprints, which help the program recognize known viruses and variants of these. When new, sufficiently different, malicious code is designed, antivirus software is either to detect this code and block it or send it to those who maintain antivirus software, after which the code is analyzed, updated, and new definition of the fingerprints is distributed. It is therefore essential for users of antivirus software to regularly update the malicious code fingerprints definition, often automatically.
Some antivirus programs also are studying suspected program function, by analyzing the application code or running it in a “sandbox,” which is a sort of quarantine, to find typical features of unauthorized or infected software, such as attempts to manipulate other programs. Continue reading
Poverty alleviation is a process that focuses on reducing poverty in a community or group of individuals.
Poverty alleviation may refer to absolute or relative poverty. Absolute poverty means that someone lives on the edge of subsistence. This person lacks food, safe drinking water, sanitation, health, education, shelter, and information.
Absolute poverty occurs mainly in developing countries. In turn, relative poverty refers to the living conditions of a group or person judged in relationship with its environment. It is an index for the income inequality. Relative poverty is everywhere.
Poverty is not limited to income poverty. It has many dimensions, such as social exclusion, lack of access to education, and a short life expectancy. Development experts also inclined to use broader definitions of poverty. Continue reading
lt happens quite often, we hear it pronounced in a conversation between friends, colleagues, or family, comments on gender differences in language.
- Men do not like to talk about their feelings.
- Girls and ladies must not say bad words.
- Men and women do not have the same topics of conversation, they do not use the same words to talk about same things, men do not know to listen to.
- Women do not listen, they are talking, they question and they answer.
What is a scientific basis for such stereotypes? Continue reading
The thoughts of Freud, his basic intuitions and philosophical position are known. His name is on everyone’s lips, and the thinker, perhaps more than any other, influenced the formation of the modern man mentality.
Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856-September 23, 1939) was a professor at the University of Vienna and lived most of his life in Austria. Even when he was student at the University he was reading various philosophical books, and become interested in positivism. In 1882, he began his practice. He was a good doctor. In 1889, Freud put forward the idea of a local anesthesia. Later, Freud left the treatment of somatic diseases, as he was increasingly attracted by mental diseases treatment, finding a connection between neuroses and somatic clinical diseases.
To treat mental illness, you need to know its cause, but it is much more complicated than finding out the cause of somatic diseases. So Freud initially was fascinated by hypnosis: it seemed that with hypnosis you may open the depths of the human psyche, in which originate complex mental illness. Exploring his patients using hypnosis, Freud mad a startling discovery: the spiritual existence of a human being is not limited to his consciousness. Continue reading
The term “social development” is far from having a precise and consistent definition in different works and documents consulted during this research paper. The meaning of this term is even more vague and variable according to the authors and the institutions that use it that the status of this notion is particularly uncertain. In the majority of cases, the social development concept is used to describe a practice, action, or even an attitude without any other theoretical ambition. It then works best as a descriptive qualification, which does not have to be documented more than this. It is a banal truism: everybody knows what the development and social mean. All this is common sense.
Less frequently this notion is to label an approach, issues, methods and specific procedures. It then made the object of guides and manuals in an essentially operational perspective. More often than elsewhere, this formulation, if it is the subject of explicitation, does not offer worthy of the name definition. In this case, it is often near other neighboring formulations, which can be used alternatively, within the same presentation. Continue reading