Bluetooth security is ensured via data encryption, as well as devices authorization procedure. Encryption of data is from 8 to 128 bits, which allows to set the level of resistance of the resulting encryption in accordance with the legislation of each country. Therefore it is necessary to say, that properly configured Bluetooth devices cannot connect spontaneously, therefore, any leaking sensitive information to unauthorized persons is not possible.
Moreover, there is no limit on the level of protection for a specific application.
If you have to write a free sample research paper on Bluetooth security you must know that depending on the requirements, Bluetooth specification provides three modes of security that can be used either individually or in various combinations:
The first mode, which is usually the default, has minimal level of security – no measures for the safe use of Bluetooth-enabled devices is taken. The data is encrypted with a shared key and can be received by any device without restrictions.
In the second mode, protection is organized at the device level, i.e., the security measures are based on the authentication and authorization. This mode has different levels of trust for each service offered by the device. The level of access can be indicated directly in the chip, and in accordance with this the device will receive certain data from other devices.
The third mode provides protection at the session level where the data is encoded with 128-bit random numbers stored in each pair of devices participating in a particular communication session. This mode requires authentication and uses the encryption.
The second and third modes are often applied simultaneously. The main task of the authentication process is to check whether the device that initiates a session is precisely what it is. The device initiating the connection sends its address identifier (Bluetooth Device Address, BD_ADDR). Initiated device responds with a random number as a request. At this time, both devices expect an identification response by combining address identifier with the received random number. The comparison is either a session of communication, or the end of connection (responds do not match).
If someone to steal the authentication key, it is necessary for him to know the algorithm to identify a key from the request and response, and determination of the inverse algorithm requires considerable computing power. Therefore, the cost to extract the key by brutal force is unreasonably high.
With regard to the authorization, it is designed so that identified Bluetooth-device allow access to specific data or services. There are three levels of trust between Bluetooth-enabled devices: trusted, non-trusted and unknown. If a device has a trust relationship with the initiating one, the last allowed unrestricted access to resources. If the device has not trust, access to resources is limited to the so-called layer security service. For example, the first protective layer requires authentication and authorization for the opening of access to the service, the second – only identification, the third – only encryption. Unknown device, which has not been identified, is considered unconfirmed.
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