Genetic engineering is an activity to identify and move the DNA segment. In genetic engineering, there are a number of techniques used to investigate and transfer genes. Genetic engineering is a powerful tool for basic research on cells and their components.
With the help of genetic engineering, we can now construct a bacteria to produce human insulin or manufacture human growth hormone. These hormones can then be used as medicine. Scientists call genetic engineering replacement for the 2000s antibiotics.
Genetic engineering can be used against a wide variety of diseases, both congenital and acquired. AIDS, liver diseases, and diseases are some of the areas in which researchers are very confident about gene therapy.
Those who prepare their research papers on genetic engineering must remember that at the beginning of XXth, the rediscovery of the work by Mendel (1822-1888) and the work of Morgan (1866-1945) on flies helped understand that heredity is due to the transmission of particles called genes, arranged on linear chromosomes. In the 1950s, the chemical nature of the genes and the molecular structure of the DNA were demonstrated. The discovery of restriction enzymes in 1965, was confirmed in 1973 by Paul Berg and his colleagues. These can cut and pick precisely the DNA proteins, giving researchers the tools they lacked for a mapping of the genome. It also opened the way for transgenesis, which allows to intervene in vitro on portions’ of DNA and thus gene. The technology of the recombinant DNA allowed the insertion of a portion of DNA (one or more genes) into another DNA.
In some organizations, the technologies developed to introduce a gene in living cells remain limited by the randomness of the insertion of the new sequence in the genome. Randomly positioned, the new gene can inactivate or disrupt the operation of third genes, or even cause serious side effects such as triggering a process of carcinogenesis. Untargeted insertion technologies do not allow to obtain reproducibility of the experiment: there is no guarantee that the new sequence is always inserted in the same place.
Since the late 1990s, a new generation of technologies, added knowledge and latest technologies, such as Meganucleases and zinc finger nucleases. They let you get into a specific area of DNA to increase the accuracy of the correction or insertion practiced, thus preventing cellular toxicities and provide reliable reproducibility of the procedure.
These new genome engineering technologies with synthetic genomics (concept of artificial genomes) are currently among the most promising technologies in terms of applied biological research and industrial innovation.
The first attempts to modify genomes have been to modify the genetic sequences using only the homologous recombination. This mechanism of natural maintenance of the DNA can repair a DNA strand as a template using a homologous sequence on a different strand.
It is possible to induce homologous recombination between the natural DNA of a cell and a sprig of exogenous DNA introduced by researchers, using as vector the modified retrovirus genome, for example. The recombination process is flexible enough to introduce some level of change (addition, deletion, or modification of a portion of DNA) at the homologous target area.
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