3D printing means building three-dimensional models by additive method. The structure of the model is controlled by special computer software for building with various solid or liquid materials, according to specified shape and size. When constructing, chemical or physical melting or curing processes take place. For the process of the printing such materials as metals, resins, plastics, and ceramics are used.
College students interested in writing research paper on 3d printing must know that at first 3D printing were used mainly in the building of models and prototypes, and the building of working pieces, of which minor quantities were needed. It was used, for example, by Boeing for building 86 laser sintering parts of the F-18 Hornet jet fighter.
3D printing is used in the following areas:
- Aircraft and aerospace industry
- Medical and Dental Technology
- Packaging industry
3D printing techniques in opposition to the injection molding e.g., have the advantage that the time-consuming production of molds and the mold change is not necessary. Compared to other modeling processes such as drilling, turning, cutting, during 3D printing there is no loss of the working. In addition, the process is greatly energetically efficient, due to the lossless model construction.
The most popular 3D printing techniques are electron beam melting and selective laser melting of metals, stereolithography selective laser sintering of metals, polymers, and ceramics, and the Digital Light Processing for liquid resins and the Fused Deposition Modeling and Polyjet Modeling for partially synthetic resins and plastics.
Today, common resolution of the printing using resin is 0.040 mm in the x- and y-direction and 0.010 mm in the z-axis.
3D printers usually work with a material or material mixture and a printing method. Some combined pressure methods had already been tested. Such as printing a fully functional zinc-air battery made of several materials at Cornell University.
3D printing with plastics of various hardnesses and colors is now also possible simultaneously. This makes it possible to carry out processes which previously needed several manufacturing steps in a single operation. For example, a shock-resistant object with rubber-like surface can be locally made.
3D printing also slowly makes its way in the world of art. More and more artists work with 3D printing and use the creative possibilities for their art work. Sculptors and other artists who have created sculptures or three-dimensional objects are always the ulterior motives of the technical feasibility. 3D printing expanded not only the horizon, as even the most complex forms are possible, but it’s also economically completely new standards, since the time-consuming manual work must be carried out to the last detail only on the digital object, then the printer converts the thoughts into reality.
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