It is accompanied by changes in the sensitivity and bronchial reactivity and manifested by attacks of breathlessness, status asthmaticus, or, in their absence, the symptoms of respiratory discomfort (paroxysmal cough, wheezing, and shortness of breath), accompanied by reversible airflow obstruction on the background of genetic susceptibility to allergic diseases, extrapulmonary symptoms of allergies, blood eosinophilia, and ( or) sputum.
As type of allergy, bronchial asthma is a common disease in children. In the environment, there are many substances that can cause allergy (hypersensitivity) and various related diseases. However, increased sensitivity is not peculiar to all people.
This ability of some organisms is sometimes called the “allergic constitution,” which is characterized by high excitability of the autonomic nervous system, increased by the permeability of the smallest blood vessels (capillaries) and some peculiarities of metabolism in the human body. Children are more amenable to allergic diseases. However, allergy does not arise in infants and very young children due to underdevelopment of immune lymphoid cells, nervous system, and other tissues.
The tendency to allergic reactions usually appears at the age of one – one and a half years, and increases to puberty. The category of allergic diseases includes the main forms of bronchial asthma. Currently, there are two main forms of allergic bronchial asthma: infectious and non-infectious.
The causes of asthma are not precisely understood, but there are identified risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are grouped into predisposing, causal, and contributing to the development of asthma.
- Predisposing factors (genetically determined) are the heredity and atopy. They determine the tendency of the body to the disease. The term “atopy” refers to genetically caused overproduction of immunoglobulin E, which declares itself in vasomotor rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and allergic dermatitis.
- Causal factors, or “inductors,” sensitize the body and cause the onset of the disease. These include a variety of allergens (house dust, feather pillows, book library dust, pollen, trees, grasses, animal dander, and food: eggs, citrus fruits, fish, drugs, mostly antibiotics). Often combine two or more pathogenic variants.
Risk factors that exacerbate the course of asthma, enhancing the inflammatory process, are referred to as triggers. The role of triggers in the sensitized body can be played by these inductors: respiratory infections, food, physical activity, weather conditions, medications (3- blockers), pregnancy, and pre-menstrual period.
Students who are trying to outline their research proposals should use free sample asthma research paper topics, which will help them understand that asthma is a chronic, inflammatory allergic disease characterized by attacks of suffocation due to spasm of the bronchial muscles, hypersecretion, and swelling of the bronchial mucosa.
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