Animal communication is the set of exchanges of information between different individuals.
Interspecific communication focuses on interaction between individuals of the same species and interspecific communication involves individuals of different species.
The biological world is full of smells, movements sounds and electrical signals by which animals interact in various contexts such as the attraction to the partner, search for food, competition for resources etc… Any communication involves at least 2 individuals (a transmitter and a receiver).
The transmitter produces a signal, which is the physical medium of information. The signal causes a change in the behavior and physiological state of the receiver. The receiver can sometimes use this information to make decisions that result in a behavioral response. The response of the receiver is likely to have consequences for the survival of the transmitter as well as on his own. Continue reading
Poverty alleviation is a process that focuses on reducing poverty in a community or group of individuals.
Poverty alleviation may refer to absolute or relative poverty. Absolute poverty means that someone lives on the edge of subsistence. This person lacks food, safe drinking water, sanitation, health, education, shelter, and information.
Absolute poverty occurs mainly in developing countries. In turn, relative poverty refers to the living conditions of a group or person judged in relationship with its environment. It is an index for the income inequality. Relative poverty is everywhere.
Poverty is not limited to income poverty. It has many dimensions, such as social exclusion, lack of access to education, and a short life expectancy. Development experts also inclined to use broader definitions of poverty. Continue reading
Premarital sex is sexual intercourse that occurs between unmarried people. Nowadays premarital sex is supposed to be a norm and people do not think about this action negatively. Obviously, in the traditional society premarital sex was unacceptable and was treated like shame. Furthermore, in some cultures this type of sex was treated like crime and people could be punished with imprisonment, corporal punishment and even capital punishment. Centuries ago the attitude towards premarital sex in Europe was extremely negative and when a woman got pregnant being unmarried, she tried to get married as fast as possible to avoid execution and shame. With the run of time and with the increase of the value of human life premarital sex stopped to be treated like crime and very soon it has become a norm. On the other hand, in Muslim culture, premarital sex is still big shame and in some countries like Egypt or Pakistan, this kind of sex is believed to be one of the most serious crimes. Continue reading
Technical education is a type of education that is aimed at the improvement of student’s knowledge in the fields of science and mathematics. Nowadays technical education is very important for the development of every country, because human civilization and its development depends on technologies and abilities to apply knowledge on practice. When one speaks about technical education, he often confuses this study with vocational education where students are taught to work with their hands. Evidently, manual work is not the same as technical education, because this type of work does not require deep knowledge in sciences and mathematics. It does not worth mentioning that technical education focuses on high technologies, engineering and other activities that require practical knowledge about mathematics and other exact sciences. Continue reading
The first 3D internet implementation became real due to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) developed in 1995, initially designed to create interactive 3D demonstrations over the World Wide Web. The idea was very bold at the time, in 1995, as a typical Internet connection through a dial-up modem had maximum transmission rate at 33600 bps, and even the speed of digital subscriber lines did not exceed 128 Kbps. with full color picture transmitted to the user’s computer in minutes, 3D Online seemed like a figment of an unhealthy imagination of B-movie science fiction writer. However, people who developed the standard worked for the famous Silicon Graphics Inc., who was no stranger to putting fantasy into reality.
In addition to SGI, Sun and Macromedia were known for their attempts to create a three-dimensional network, as well as such giants as Microsoft (Chrome, and later the 3D objects in the .NET Framework) and Adobe (Atmosphere). Continue reading
Ethnicity means belonging to a group of people who believe they have common origins and characteristics. Ethnic groups are biologically self-replicating through higher or lower degree of endogami, that is, marriage within the group. Ethnic groups differ in culture, while questions about appearance tend to be seen separately from ethnicity. Examples of ethnic groups are Germans, Jews, Kurds, Iranians, Russians, etc.
Generally, four principles are being used to distinguish an ethnic group from other social groups:
- It consists mostly of members who mainly get married within their own group, (endogami).
- Its members perceive themselves, and are viewed even by external observer as a special category.
- The group held together by ideas of a common origin.
- It is distinguished from other groups by specific social and cultural features, such as language, religion, and customs.
Psychotherapy is a system of medical influence on psyche and via the psyche on the human body. Often defined as activities aimed at freeing the individual from the various problems (emotional, personal, social, etc.) It is usually carried out by therapist through the establishment of deep personal contact with the patient (often through interviews and discussions), as well as the application of various cognitive, behavioral, medical, and other techniques. Depending on patients (child or adult), the type and severity of the disorder, and the context of the intervention, there are many forms of psychotherapy that rely on many different practices based on various and sometimes contradictory theoretical approaches. However, such a definition is not complete.
To date, there is no single view on the definition of the concept of “psychotherapy,” But thanks to the efforts of the European Association of Psychotherapy (EAP), there is a big work is being made in European countries by the EU legislative framework for Standardization under the definition of psychotherapy in the Strasbourg Declaration. Continue reading
Psycholinguistics is a science about human language in its psychological and linguistic aspects. This science is based on the detailed study of psychological activity of a human being in the process of development of his linguistic skills and use of his language as an autonomic system.
Obviously, if one wants to catch the meaning of a linguistic sign, he has to turn on his cognitive processes. The main aim of psycholinguistics is description and explanation of the peculiarities of language functioning from the point of view of psychology, sociology and culturology. Language is treated like a phenomenon that is influenced by human social and cultural activity and his personal lifestyle and worldviews. Psycholinguistics is focused on an individual in his process of communication. This science tries to understand the mechanism of receiving of information by organs of sense and its processing in the human brain that helps one react to this information and response to it. Continue reading
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or both spouses enter into a marriage without the consent or against their will.
Forced marriage is still practiced in parts of South Asia, East Asia, and Africa as well as among immigrants from these regions, living in the developed countries.
Forced marriage differs from arranged marriage, in which both spouses are married, with the participation of parents or of a third party (for example, the matchmaker), in the right to choose a spouse, although this difference may be implicit. Marriage by arrangement is not the same as forced marriage, since in the first case, the parties have the opportunity to choose not to accept the marriage offer, and in the second, there is no such. However, it was often difficult to distinguish between forced marriages and marriage by agreement, due to the pressure from the family and society to enter into a marriage to show obedience to parents. Continue reading
Group communication is a type of communication in which communication takes place between two or more people of a certain social group or organization to implement the interdependent action and solutions to common problems. The group communication process can be both in the form of two or more interpersonal communications or in mutual form, orientated to all members of the group or organization. Due to the fact that the number of both senders and recipients of information increases, there is a strong possibility of misunderstanding and the distortion of information.
What is the essence of group communication?
At the level of mass and, in part, group communication there are paradoxical phenomena. The sender may be an individual, while the recipient can be a group, a collective, mass, party, people, etc., but also the sender of the message may be the so-called collegial body. Continue reading