The following academic paper is a literature review of a San Fransisco based research article entitled “Risk Behavior for HIV Infection in Participants in Preventive HIV Vaccine Trials: A Cautionary Note.” The authorship consists of Margaret Chesney and Donald Chambers, representing the Center for Aids Prevention Studies at the University of California and James Kahn, representing San Fransisco General Hospital.
This article aims to realize how preventative HIV vaccine trials can affect the sexual risk-behavior of participants, with a focus on unprotected anal sex. Although there was no hypothesis distinctly announced, the researchers maintained a primary predictor that unsafe behavior during the vaccine trials could be attributed to similar behavior before involvement.
This purpose of this study is exploratory and evaluative. The study explores the social side effects of preventative HIV vaccine trials in early phase I and phase II safety and immunogenicity trials. The exploration uncovers that the risk-behavior of participants increases and evaluation made on this basis. The evaluative part of this paper states that in the case where a developed vaccine is available for public use, such behavior could negate the positive aspects of the vaccine, as no vaccine will guarantee 100% immunity from HIV. Considering the trend that shows participants acting more liberally in their sexual activity and engaging in high-risk behavior after participation, it is evident this social trend could undermine the benefits of such a vaccine. Continue reading
Contrary to its image as a relatively ‘safer’ employer, the British public sector has undergone a tremendous shift in its employment policies. Aimed to control personnel expenditure and to facilitate organizational flexibility, the restructuring of the public sector in the UK has indeed managed to reduce costs and jobs but took a significant toll on current and future employees (Morgan, Alington, & Heery, 2000). This short literature review focuses on three major consequences of these changes, namely the negative experience of temporary work, its link to questions of gender and the temporary workers’ job security and job satisfaction.
The Negative Experience of Temporary Workers
Very briefly speaking, temporary work arrangements include an array of employment contracts, which do not guarantee life-long employment relations between the parties. The deal can (but not always) include a definite termination date and may be limited to the completion of a task, a projector to the return of an absent worker. Therefore, temporary workers are typically those whose skills and functions are not essential for employers’ core activities, that is, temporary workers typically found in the organization’s ‘peripheries’ (Kalleberg, 2001). Continue reading
Although it should be defined as pure science fiction, Andrew Niccol’s 1997 film GATTACA is a horrifying account on the potential misuse of genetic research and human engineering. Similar to George Orwell’s description of the elements that turns a social revolution into a tyranny in his 1949 novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, Niccol finds human evil and the extremely controversial science of eugenics (which later fueled the Nazi ideology) in the developing biosciences.
This research paper deals with two major issues in the borderline between science and fiction. First, it shows how some elements in GATTACA are more realistic than one we usually assume. Second, it suggests a way to draw the line between reality and fantasy, and to know how to recognize those elements, which may bring about a deterioration of societies as demonstrated in the film. Continue reading
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s 1850 The Scarlet Letter is a story of adultery in the 17th century’s Puritan Boston. As its basic settings suggest, the novel is a razor-sharp manifesto against the moral and social standards of that time. Moreover, as discussed thoroughly in this paper, Hawthorne’s work invites the reader to investigate a wide array of micro-level matters, in particular the perception of the self, the woman and the conflict between one’s emotional world and reality.
This paper aims to provide a comprehensive critical analysis of The Scarlet Letter. To do so, the analysis reviews several themes and characters from three critical perspectives, namely the Feminist, the Psychological and the Historical Critical Perspectives of literature. The three sections, each one focuses on one of the three critical perspectives, combines examples from the novel itself, critical analyses of leading literary scholars, and the author’s own critical views on the matters in question.
Analysis from a Feminist Critical Perspective
Is The Scarlet Letter a Feminist Work?
By the time he wrote The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne was fully aware of the developments in the 19th century’s feminist movement and, as argued by Baym (2005), held continuous literary conversation with the movement (whose first major convention was held just two years before The Scarlet Letter was published) and its values. Thus, although the novel deals with “a woman who rebels against patriarchal authority” (Person, 2007, p. 23) in the context of the 17th century’s Puritan Boston, Hawthorne’s support for ideas of women liberation is stated loud and clear. Moreover, Hawthorne expands the discussion on the classical role of women in 19th century’s literature, which focused on “female stereotypes, especially the familiar opposition of Fair Maidens and Dark Ladies,” and created Hester Prynne as “a heroine who is as much a nineteenth-century feminist as a seventeenth-century Puritan heretic” (ibid.). Continue reading
The global economic crisis, a simultaneous occurrence of several economic catastrophes since the summer of 2007, is arguably the most significant global economic slowdown since the fall of the communist bloc. As discussed below, the current crisis should not be categorized as a normal recessionary phase along the business cycle, but rather as a turning point in more than a few economic processes and lines of thought. Furthermore, several sectors and regions were struck much severely than the average. Needless to say that every specific economic situation differs from the other, and thus it is imperative to separate the aggregated numbers and the global actions from the conditions, which should bring about a positive change in the near future.
Although many economists praise the actions taken by US Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke and report that the world’s largest economy is about to end its recession (Izzo), and other major European markets (such as Germany and France) are recovering as well (Herbst), many economies around the world are far from seeing the light at the end of the tunnel. Some of the best known examples are Russia and other Eastern European countries (most notably Ukraine), whose economies have shown a gradual recovery from the financial crisis that struck the region in 1998. This paper analyzes recent trends and prospective of the Russian port industry, while paying special attention to Russia’s major port on the Black Sea, namely the port of Novorossiysk in the south-western territory of Krasnodar Krai. Continue reading
Genetic testing has become an important part of our lives even though most of its benefits are still not available to the majority of people. All parents hope that their children will have a better healthier life. However, despite of how hard parents might try, they are unable to protect their children from all diseases, while the genetic testing offered for some diseases can predict the future of the child. Many ethical and practical issues surround genetic testing, including the reliability and interpretation of the tests, the role of parental choice in health of their children and the social values that can be confronted with the individual preferences. Continue reading
In 1961 Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) was the first bank which used computers in its day-to-day business, and in 1995 RBC was one of the three banks, who joined in a venture with BankAmerica Corporation and the NationsBank Corporation to install software for their on-line banking. However, in 2004, after the upgrade of the banking software, the entire business went out of control. The failure in the system was caused by two incidents; a wrong data entered by one of the workers during the update and the poor testing of the new code before installing. In addition to the error in the main system, the backup system appeared to be affected too; therefore all the information was lost and became unavailable both to the bank and its customers. Around 72 000 government workers in Ontario and New Brunswick had troubles with their deposits due to their governments, which used RBC for routing the payrolls.
As a result of such a mistake, around 2.5 million customers (10 million accounts) were unable to transfer the money, check their balances and receive paychecks for nearly a week. In addition to this, many businesses were seriously affected because of their inability to access the information connected to their accounts. Later, there was a lawsuit brought against Royal Bank of Canada, which involved 1 billion dollars as compensation. Continue reading
The proposed research project aims to assess the feasibility of establishing a McDonald’s franchised restaurant in the village of Gstaad, Switzerland. In accordance with this report’s scope and scale, the analysis comprises both internal and external factors, while giving special emphasis on McDonald’s unique position, abilities and experience in the fast food market.
Two main questions will be handled in this research:
- What relevant evidences can support or discourage the feasibility of establishing a profitable McDonald’s restaurant in Gstaad?
- Based on the findings, should McDonald’s establish a restaurant in Gstaad?
In order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the research questions, this multidisciplinary research will deal with theories and practices from several fields. These include marketing concepts and methods, strategic management issues and financial evaluation models. In-depth research about the market, the organization and the economic environment will also serve as theoretical input for this study. Continue reading
Angus, K., & Hastings, G. (2008). Forever Cool: The Influence of Smoking Imageing on Young People. BMA Board of Science.
Angus and Hastings review the influence of the tobacco products in films on youngsters and the increasing tolerance towards smoking promoted by the motion picture industry. This research report investigates the effect of tobacco imagery on young people. Trends in smoking are analyzed and different forms of pro-smoking tools are examined.
Bleicher, M. & Heidinger, S. (1998) Product placement in Hollywood productions, Vienna. University of economics.
According to Bleicher and Heidinger, the viewers fancy the characters from their favorite TV shows and movies and they want to use the same products as them and to copy their behavior and in that way to be more like them. Continue reading
The following paper is a critical appraisal of a journal entry that appears in the Social Science & Medicine journal, published in 2006. The authorship of A community-based participatory research study of multifaceted in-home environmental interventions for pediatric asthmatics in public housing is a highly qualified of five authors. Jonothan Levy, Junenette Peters, and Jane Clougherty represent Harvard School of Public Health and Doug Brugge and Shawnette Saddler represent Tufts University School of Medicine (Levy, Brugge, Peters, Clougherty, & Saddler, 2006). The researchers tackle an important issue, as is evident by statistics. In 2009, 14% of US American children had ever been diagnosed with asthma, and 10% still have it. Of the 10 million U.S. children, children in poor families are diagnosed disproportionately more often than children in families that were not poor (Bloom, Cohen, & Freeman, 2009).
The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding into the effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) on controlling and minimizing pediatric asthma symptoms. The researchers focus on areas of urban and low-income housing due to the prevalence of pest-infestation in such corresponding areas. The study aims to analyze the interactivity of risk factors and their effect on long-term health outcomes. Therefore, an attempt is made to draw correlational data with the aforementioned factors and aggravation of asthmatic symptoms. The findings of this study are to be used in combination with other studies as part of a Healy Public Housing Initiative (Levy et al., 2006). Continue reading