Angus, K., & Hastings, G. (2008). Forever Cool: The Influence of Smoking Imageing on Young People. BMA Board of Science.
Angus and Hastings review the influence of the tobacco products in films on youngsters and the increasing tolerance towards smoking promoted by the motion picture industry. This research report investigates the effect of tobacco imagery on young people. Trends in smoking are analyzed and different forms of pro-smoking tools are examined.
Bleicher, M. & Heidinger, S. (1998) Product placement in Hollywood productions, Vienna. University of economics.
According to Bleicher and Heidinger, the viewers fancy the characters from their favorite TV shows and movies and they want to use the same products as them and to copy their behavior and in that way to be more like them. Continue reading
The following paper is a critical appraisal of a journal entry that appears in the Social Science & Medicine journal, published in 2006. The authorship of A community-based participatory research study of multifaceted in-home environmental interventions for pediatric asthmatics in public housing is a highly qualified of five authors. Jonothan Levy, Junenette Peters, and Jane Clougherty represent Harvard School of Public Health and Doug Brugge and Shawnette Saddler represent Tufts University School of Medicine (Levy, Brugge, Peters, Clougherty, & Saddler, 2006). The researchers tackle an important issue, as is evident by statistics. In 2009, 14% of US American children had ever been diagnosed with asthma, and 10% still have it. Of the 10 million U.S. children, children in poor families are diagnosed disproportionately more often than children in families that were not poor (Bloom, Cohen, & Freeman, 2009).
The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding into the effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) on controlling and minimizing pediatric asthma symptoms. The researchers focus on areas of urban and low-income housing due to the prevalence of pest-infestation in such corresponding areas. The study aims to analyze the interactivity of risk factors and their effect on long-term health outcomes. Therefore, an attempt is made to draw correlational data with the aforementioned factors and aggravation of asthmatic symptoms. The findings of this study are to be used in combination with other studies as part of a Healy Public Housing Initiative (Levy et al., 2006). Continue reading
The development of workforce diversity as a scholarly concept and as a managerial reality resembles in many ways the global development of corporate cultures throughout the last two decades. Broadly establishing a preface to the ideas discussed below, HR departments’ responsibility for building and maintaining a heterogenic workforce in their organizations has greatly changed: evolving from the necessity to confirm with external pressures, the well-diversified workforce is considered today as a source of competitive advantage for companies at almost all places and sizes.
This research paper discusses several main issues that follow from the basic assumption given below, whose key outcome is the unique role of workforce diversity as a leading component in strategic HRM:
- First, the different elements and interpretations of workforce diversity will be categorized and distinguished according to the diverse sets of needs that brought about each of the diversification methods and strategies.
- Second, it will compare and contrast different approaches to workforce diversity as presented by empirical studies, while giving special attention to the differences between and within American and Japanese multinational companies in that matter.
- Third, based on the identification of the relevant needs and their corresponding strategies, the final part on this research will suggest a critical analysis of the means in which contemporary HR managers carry on their responsibility to diversity the labor. Thus, this section develop the descriptive approach that was taken in the former two sections into a practical set of tools, which should help current and future managers to cope better with the state-of-the-art in the matters under question.
The Business Nature of Prediction Markets
Simply put, the term “prediction markets” is a generic definition for a wide array of exchange platforms, on which traders can speculate on the probability of a specific event. That is, instead of trading financial instruments with an underlying asset (such as stocks, commodities or indexes), participants of prediction markets buy and sell contracts, whose value represent the probability of the underlying event between 0 and 1. Those events can be of almost any nature; for example, the prediction market service provider Intrade offered contacts on political issues (e.g. the probability that Ireland will approve the Lisbon Treaty), as well as economic (e.g. first weekend box-office returns of a new motion picture) sportive (e.g. will a North-American city will host the 2016 Summer Olympics) and legal (e.g. whether someone will be accused for Michael Jackson’s death).
Prediction markets share several characteristics with stock exchanges and gambling platform, although they cannot be associated with neither of the two latter platforms. On one hand, the market players exchange valuable financial assets, which resemble financial derivatives such as futures and exchange-traded notes (ETNs); however, prediction markets are not as closely regulated as mainstream financial markets, the values represent merely probabilities (and not trends), and the underlying events are much more diverse. Like gambling agencies, prediction markets are much more concerned with probabilities of specific events than with long-term fluctuations of the asset and offer many online service suppliers. Moreover, speculations on non-financial events (in particular sport-related) are the natural property of gambling companies. However, the gambling agencies and prediction markets is the latter’s structure as an exchange mechanism, whereas most “bookers” offer gamblers to play only “against the house.” Continue reading
The dictionary defines climate as the generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years. Although climate is something relatively stable over a long period of time, it does change. Thus our planet has seen ice ages come and go, oceans expanded or shrank to expose new land and further on. But climate change as part of earth’s natural processes is a phenomenon that usually happens at a very, very slow pace. Much slower than what mankind has been experiencing over the course of the last century, when average temperatures started rising more quickly than ever before (see picture 1). Temperatures have increased about 1.2 to 1.4ºF within 100 years according to data of NASA and NOAA (EPA). At the moment we are experiencing the highest temperatures in at least 1000 years with its peak in the last decade (Exploratorium).
Climate change is triggered by changes in the planets energy balance, this rise in temperatures in particular is triggered by the so called “greenhouse effect.” (Exploratorium)
Sunlight passes through the atmosphere and reaches the surface of the planet and part of it gets absorbed. The remaining energy that is reflected, passes back through the atmosphere into space. But some of this heat gets trapped by atmospheric gases and heats up the atmosphere. These gases are called greenhouse gases. The six main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and the three fluorinated industrial gases: hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride (Global Issues). Water vapor is also considered a greenhouse gas. Without this natural effect the temperatures on our planet would be 60° F colder and life as we know it would be impossible. Most atmospheric gases, like nitrogen or oxygen are not greenhouse gases, but since the composition of the atmospheric gases has changed recently and greenhouse gases make up a higher percentage than ever before, more and more heat is trapped which leads to the phenomenon of global warming. Continue reading
Discuss the effects (results) of the French Revolution and the Age of Napoleon on government, business, warfare and religion.
Several important landmark changes took place during the French Revolution. One of the main results was the abolition of absolutism and absolute monarchy. The upper class got the power. Fundamental human rights were proclaimed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen and guaranteed by the constitution. Feudalism was abolished and more people were allowed to participate in elections.
Abolition of absolutism and proclamation of basic human and civil rights had significant influence on social changes in the entire Europe and on our modern understanding of democracy. The French Revolution helped to shape ideas of liberalism. Modern French republic as a liberal-democratic constitutional state has its roots in the achievements of the French Revolution. Continue reading
Trends and operations in the housing market underpin to a great extent the economic behavior of individuals and markets. This market’s unique economic importance is derived from several key features of the market, including its size, its indispensable character to people and its manners of financing, investment and consumption. It is thus easy to understand why many claim that housing economics underlie the current economic and financial slowdown.
This paper aims to analyze the housing market as a primary indicator for the economy. Moreover, it uses key characteristics of the current situation in the market to explain macroeconomic concepts and theories. Thus, the main body of this paper is structured in accordance to economic reasoning and issues.
The Housing Market and National Product
The housing market contributes to a nation’s economy in several ways. Among the components of Gross National Product (GDP), housing activities represents production of construction-related goods and services, investments and housing services (i.e. renting activities). While the housing sector accounts to 3-10 percent of GDP and Gross National Income GNI and 20-30 percent of all gross fixed capital formation (Angel, 2000), countries differ in the division of housing activities between the government (e.g. through public housing schemes) and the private sector. Thus, it is clear that trends in this market significantly influence any country’s economy. Continue reading
Major Theories of Intelligence
The human brain works in a constantly changing environment. No moment is identical to the other, and hence it is necessary to perceive a new situation, to adapt to it and to select stimuli and actions. Broadly speaking, intelligence can be defined as the ability to execute such tasks as effectively and efficiently as possible. The result of intelligent performance (regardless of the level of intelligence) is thus a process of selection and response, which can drive beneficial intentions and actions.
Throughout the years, more than a few theories and approaches have suggested to define and measure human intelligence. As a preface to the evaluation of the four measurements given in the next section, it is imperative to recognize their underlying theories:
- The Triarchic Theory: proposed by Sternberg and defines intelligence in three major aspects: analytical, creative, and practical thinking.
- The Multiple Intelligence Theory: suggested by Howard Gardner and agrues that intelligence is not unitary, but rather comprises eight distinct multiple intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist.
Each of these intelligences is a distinct module in the brain and operates more or less independently of the others.
- Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory: define intelligence as performance in ten groups of broad stratum abilities, such as crystallized intelligence (Gc), fluid intelligence (Gf), quantitatve reasoning (Gq) and reading & writing ability (Grw). This theory offers a wide spectrum of abilities, which can be chosen from according to individual characteristics such as culture and educational level.
Different Periods in Russian Economy
In this research paper I will shortly cover general features of economy during the periods from industrialization of Stalin till present Medvedev’s government.
Stalin had great influence on the economy of the Soviet Union in 1920s. It was he, who launched industrialization process, and who knows where could be Russia now, if he did everything right and succeeded. From one hand his actions were directed on the overall well-being of the Soviet Union and its people. He was a real patriot who wanted to see USSR on the top of the world. On the other hand he was ruthless to common people and in every second person envisioned the enemy of the nation. Obviously, all public enemies had to stay in convict colonies and camps (Barbusse 42-44).
During the period of the Stalin’s government country was facing a depression. Stalin considered fast and efficient industrialization the only way to take the country out of the crisis and to raise it to unknown previously economic heights. He started with the agricultural sector by introducing the notion of collective and state farms. He was against private property of any kind.
In 1928 he introduced the first five year plan with set standards of production that seemed quite unachievable. People should sacrifice everything, including personal interests for the common goal, for their native country, for its future and prosperity. Later on, he decided to speed up the timing of this plan, not taking into consideration that there were no factual prerequisites for it. Continue reading
The Birthmark was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in the middle of 19th century and was first published in 1843. The story describes the very natural thing, birthmark, and its impact on different minds. An 18th century’s scientist, Aylmer, gets married to a beautiful woman but later on finds his frustration about one feature in her appearance. An author has found a delicate way to criticize and blame the epoch, which he lived in, through this short, but meaningful, story.
One of the passages from the story describes Georgiana’s, Aylmer’s wife, birthmark. Earlier, a conversation between the spouses begins, and an author tries to give every little detail in order for the reader to imagine and picture for herself the cause of the problem. The first thing, which should be noted, is that the author describes Georgiana’s birthmark with a grain of admiration and pity. It seems as if he tries to justify a little imperfection of a woman. Partially, this can be notices in the way he describes, how previous Georgiana’s lovers used to approach and treat her birthmark. After describing a negative approach to a mark by the female figures, he gives an example of Eve of Powers, which can ‘convert to a monster’ by the blue strains in the statuary marble. These author’s comments give a clear picture of a disagreement with the story’s character, Aylmer, concerning his wife’s appearance. Continue reading