Equal opportunity employment is the law, which was designed to protect employees against any form of discrimination in labor relations.
As a study conducted in 2007-2008 by Centre for Social and labor rights shown, such discriminations is a common enough occurrence. About 14% of workers faced discriminatory practices in labor relations; about 60% of job advertisements published in the media, contain discriminatory requirements for applicants for a job. Meanwhile, the power of the legislative development of legal issues, as well as the number of research and practical recommendations on the work of lawyers representing the victims of discrimination in the courts are clearly insufficient.
College students who writes their research paper on equal employment opportunity should understand that discrimination in employment and labor relations takes many forms. All forms of discrimination are characterized by one common feature:
- discrimination entails a different attitude towards people because of certain features specific to them (such as race, color or gender), resulting in inequality of opportunity and treatment.
In other words, discrimination leads to inequity and amplifies it.
It limits the freedom of the individual in the development of his abilities, as well as opportunities to make choices and follow their professional and personal aspirations. Combating discrimination is a way of achieving equality. We can say that discrimination epitomizes what is forbidden, and equality is something that should be achieved. Laws against discrimination in employment, have been issued for the purpose of achieving equality first for racial and ethnic groups, and then to other groups (gender, age, etc.), subject to discrimination. Currently there are many theories of equality, but they may be grouped in the three main groups and discussed respectively in three perspectives: historical, economic, and compensation.
Historical perspective shows the purpose of the laws on discrimination in employment. For example, in the U.S. adoption of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ushered in a new era when discrimination has become a phenomenon that cannot occur exist with impunity in society. Modern laws prohibiting discrimination, aim achieving equality of all classes before discriminated with impunity: racial, ethnic minorities and other categories legally protected now. American law is a reflection of tough and clear anti-discrimination policies by which the law defines how an employer must act and what he cannot do in a particular situation.
The law says that an employer making a decision cannot base it on such grounds as race, ethnicity, gender, etc. The law does not limit the freedom of the employer in hiring, firing, promotion of staff, but only until these decisions will not be based on parameters that are prohibited by law.
Economic perspective shows what economic value will have legal prohibition of discrimination and whether it outweighs the demands of market competition. The success of anti-discrimination legislation does not depend on the presumption that discrimination is evil, and the evaluation of the impact of its prohibitions on market efficiency. In assessing discrimination in economic terms, American authors identify two concepts that explain its existence in the labor market even if there is, in principle, anti-discrimination legislation. The first theory, developed by G. Becker, concerns the situation of African Americans: many employers, customers, co-workers do not experience the pleasure of communicating with them and try to protect themselves from such interaction. Ultimately, it affects employment, wages and working conditions of people with black skin. The second theory advanced by E. Phelps, explains racial discrimination by low productivity of African Americans. Sometimes it is more profitable for an employer to hire white workers whose productivity is better, than adapt to the black workers. Stereotypes existing in society, compels employers to refrain from hiring an inefficient worker.
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