One cigarette contains an average of 0.5 mg of nicotine (the active ingredient of tobacco. Nicotine has a stimulative effect of the surfactant. It possesses narcogene properties, which make it addictive and cause nicotine addiction and dependence. Nicotine’s physiological effects include peripheral vasoconstriction, increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased peristalsis bowel, tremor, increased release of catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine), overall decline of the metabolism. Nicotine stimulates the pleasure center of hypothalamic, which is the reason for nicotine addiction. To a certain extent the euphoric effect is similar to the effect of cocaine. The brain stimulation is followed by a significant decline in the brain activity up to depression, leading to a desire to increase the dose of nicotine. Such two-phase mechanism is characteristic of all narcotic stimulants, first stimulating, then depressing.
College and university students may use free sample nicotine addiction research paper to understand that nicotine is readily absorbed through the skin, mucous membranes and the surface of the lungs. For pulmonary route of administration the effect on CNS is already apparent after seven seconds from the inhaling. Each puff has its own reinforcing effect. Thus, with 10 puffs per cigarette, when smoked one pack of cigarettes a day, a smoking habit receives reinforcements approximately two hundred times per day. For a certain time, the situation, the ritual of preparing to smoke when repeated is associated through conditional reflex with the effect of nicotine.
Over time, there are signs of tolerance lead to a weakening of subjective sensations with repeated use of nicotine. Tobacco smokers typically report that the first morning cigarette after overnight abstinence affects them in the most pronounced refreshing effect. When a person starts smoking again after a period of abstinence, the sensitivity to nicotine is restored, and such a person may even experience nausea if he immediately returns to the same dose.
First-time smokers may feel nausea even at low concentrations of nicotine in the blood, whereas smokers with experience have nausea when nicotine concentration exceeds their usual level.
Negative reinforcement of the nicotine addiction is associated with relief experienced by the individual in connection with the termination of an unpleasant sensation. In some cases nicotine addicted would not quit to prevent withdrawal symptoms, since the imperative need to smoke can occur when the nicotine level in the blood is low. Some smokers even wake up at night to smoke a cigarette, probably to alleviate withdrawal symptoms that occur on low blood levels of nicotine and interrupt their sleep. If the nicotine level in the blood is artificially maintained by slow intravenous infusion, the number of cigarettes smoked and number of puffs can be reduced. Thus, people can smoke, to support the reinforcing effects of nicotine or to avoid painful sensations associated with nicotine withdrawal symptoms or, more likely, due to a combination of these reasons.
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