Hypertension, also known as Arterial Hypertension, is persistent elevation of the blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg. Essential, or primary, hypertension is 90-95% of cases of hypertension. In other cases, inessential, or secondary, arterial hypertension is diagnosed. These symptomatic are usually caused by nephropathy – 3-4%, endocrine abnormalities – 0.1-0.3%, or can be of hemodynamic, neurologic, stress nature caused by medical examination or treatment, as well as gestational hypertension, in which the high blood pressure is one of the main symptoms of the disease. Thus, women taking oral contraceptives are more likely to develop hypertension. Main risk groups also are fertile women with obesity, smoking women, and aged women. With the development of hypertension, patients need to stop taking these drugs and dietary supplements. The decision to cancel other medications should be taken by their doctor. Hypertension not caused by oral contraceptives, is not a contraindication to hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. However, with hypertension hormone replacement therapy should be monitored frequently to prevent the blood pressure elevation.
Hypertension is one of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is found that hypertension affects 20-30% of the adult population. With age, the prevalence of the disease increases and reaches 50-65% in those over 65 years old.
There are over 20 combinations in the human genetic code, which can potentially cause a persistent blood pressure elevation.
Previously it was thought normal for the systolic blood pressure measurement to be a slightly different in different hands. But recent evidence suggests that the difference in the 10-15 mmHg may indicate if not cerebrovascular disease, at least the one contributing to the development of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to check the blood pressure in both arms, to fix the differences for the appointment of additional tests. To avoid mistakes, it is necessary to check the blood pressure three times with short intervals on each hand, and consider true the lowest indication. However, it shoul be noted that there are patient whose blood pressure is higher with each next checking.
There are syndromes of primary and secondary arterial hypertension. The syndrome of essential hypertension occurs in 90-95% of patients with elevated blood pressure, in the remaining 5%, hypertension is caused by diseases combined symptomatically as secondary of the renal or another genesis. Syndrome of primary hypertension (EH) at the beginning of the disease is often characterized by a more or less prolonged period of labile hypertension, sometimes aggravated by hypertensive crisis.
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