Lupus erythematosus is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease of the connective family, that is to say, involving several organs, connective tissue, which manifests itself differently in different individuals. The word is associated with lupus.
Contrary to what one might think of the name of this disease, it is not just the classic appearance of skin lesions of the facial region that looks like the Venetian wolf mask (Latin lupus) (lesion erythematous extending from the root of nose to the cheekbones in the shape of a butterfly wing), because this disease is called lupus since the Middle Ages, while the mask wears that name only since the seventeenth century.
The ratio between male and female patient is about ten to one. Its prevalence is about 40 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. It is five times higher among people with black color skin. Lupus affects mainly young women between 20 and 40 years is exceptional before the age of 5 years. The causes remain unknown. However, some exogenous and endogenous contributing factors were identified.
Exogenous factors may be:
- Exposure to sunlight (especially ultraviolet) is typically a factor promoting outbreaks of the disease.
- Some drugs (procainamide, quinidine, hydralazine) may give lupus syndromes limited to joint and skin disorders. As well as terbinafine, anti-TNF, anti-epileptics, and inhibitors of proton pump.
- A recent infection with Epstein-Barr virus may play a role in the onset of the disease, possibly because of the similarity of some antigens with the target of some autoantibodies.
- Natural substances such as curcumin at a high dose (30 mg • kg-1) experimentally worsen diseases of the central nervous system in mice, caused by systemic lupus erythematosus.
Endogenous factors: there are also genetic factors in this disease. Thus, there is a concordance in identical twins almost four times higher than among fraternal twins. Similarly, some groups are more frequently found HLA. The presence of a mutation in a number of genes appear to contribute to the onset of the disease. And mutations in the IRF5 gene ITGAM, STAT4, BLK, BANK1, PDCD1, PTPN22, TNFSF4, TNFAIP3 SPP18, TNIP1, PRDM1, JAZF1, UHRF1BP1 etIL10 and deficits in several factors of the complement system (C1q, C4 and C2) have been identified. The activity of some of these genes has been linked to other diseases and it is likely that the onset of lupus requires the activity of several genes in addition to an exogenous factor.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is primarily an autoimmune disease attacking the connective tissue of the body, present throughout the body (skin, eyes, tendons, muscles, organs, etc.) Antibodies specific “self molecules” are produced by the immune system of the individual patient. These cell bodies are present in almost all cells and therefore likely to be detected when a cell is lysed. This leads back to the destruction of surrounding cells, causing the symptoms mentioned and making the disease worse.
College students, who write their research proposals on lupus erythematosus, may want look through free research paper topics on lupus to understand the causes for the female predominance of the disease, which are not clear although there is a hormonal component and influence as evidenced by the more frequent lupus flares in postmenopausal women with substitutive hormone therapy.
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