Nature versus nurture is a discussion between the proponents of the biogenetic concept, which believe that major mental personality traits are inherent in the very nature of man (biological origin) determining his life, and the proponents of the sociogenetic concept believe that human behavior is nothing innate and its every action is only the product of outside influence. Therefore, you can achieve any results by manipulating the external effects.
The first step of biogenetic concepts was Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, according to which genesis is a process subjected to a certain law. German naturalist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) formulated the biogenetic law according to which an animal as well as a human being incarnate in utero the stages, which this species go through in phylogeny. This process was extended to the process of ontogenetic development. American psychologist C. Hall (1846-1924) believed that a child in its development recapitulates the stages of the human race development. Theory of mental development that recapitulates the history of mankind is called the theory of recapitulation.
Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) proved that there are acquired forms of behavior, which are based on reflexes. This gave rise to the view that the development of a person comes to the manifestation of instinct and dressage. German psychologist Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), conducting his experiments on apes, discovered the presence of intelligence. This fact was the basis for the theory that the mind in its development goes through three stages: 1) Instinct 2) taming 3) intelligence. Austrian psychologist Buhler (1879-1963) put forward the principle of pleasure as a basic principle of life. He linked the stages of instinct, taming, and intelligence, not only with the maturation of the brain and the complexity of relations with the environment, but also to the development of affective states – the experience of pleasure and the associated action.
Students of biological faculties, who decided to write their research paper on the nature versus nature debate have to also say a couple of word about proponents of the socio-genetic concept, among which was English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704), who believed that the child is born with a pure soul, like a white sheet of paper on which you can write anything you like, and the child will grow the way parents want it. According to this concept, heredity plays a key role in the development of the mind and behavior of the child. Moreover, it is very important to present the existing learning theories to explain the way of this concept evolution.
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