Satellite communication have long been known and is used for transmitting various signals over an extended distance. Since its inception, satellite communication has been growing rapidly and, as they gained experience, improved the equipment, development of better methods for the signal transmission, there happened transition from individual satellite lines to local and global communication systems.
Such popularity of the satellite communication is explained by several advantages it possess. These include, in particular, high bandwidth, unlimited space overlapping, high quality and reliability of the communication channels. These virtues defining the broad capabilities of satellite communications, make it a unique and effective means of communication. Satellite communications is currently the main method of international and national communications to large and medium distances. The use of satellites for communication continues to grow with the development of existing networks. Many countries have their own national satellite network.
Satellite communication systems can be divided into two types: working through satellites in geostationary and non-geostationary orbits.
Non-geostationary satellites are used primarily for military, scientific, and meteorological purposes. Their main feature is an inability to maintain 24 / 7 communication with an earth receiver. However, moving along a predetermined orbit relative to the Earth’s surface, they can collect data from a large area of the surface.
Geostationary satellites are set into the orbit at the equator, where their angular velocity is equal to the speed of rotation of the Earth around its axis. The height above the surface of the Earth, where the conditions of constant velocity and equality of centrifugal and gravitational force are met, is 36,000 kilometers. Theoretically, one positioned so satellite can provide high-quality connection for a third of the earth’s surface. In reality, the serviced area is much less. The peculiarity of satellites in geostationary orbit is a significant time delay (about 240 ms) in the satellite channel, caused by the necessity to cover twice the distance of 36,000 miles from an earth receiver to a satellite.
To write a good research proposal on satellite communication, an investigator should explain that satellite communication systems may differ by the type of transmitted signal, which may be digital or analog. Transmission of information in digital form has several advantages compared with other methods of transfer. They are:
- simplicity and effectiveness of integrating multiple independent signals and converting digital messages in “packages” for the convenience of switching;
- lower energy consumption compared to the analog signal transmission;
- relative insensitivity of digital channels to the effect of the accumulation of distortion when re-transmitting, which is usually a serious problem in analog communication systems;
- potential to produce a very small probability of transmission errors and to achieve high fidelity of data transferred by detecting and correcting errors;
- confidentiality of communications;
- the flexibility of the digital equipment which allows the use of microprocessors, digital switching and the use of chips with greater integration of components.
Today, there are a large number of SSA, based on different satellite systems, and different principles for different applications.
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