Stock market is a part of the capital market, where take place the emissions, purchase, and sale of securities.
Stock market is an abstract concept that is used to denote the set of actions and mechanisms, which make securities trading possible. It should not be confused with the concept of stock exchange, which is an organization that provides the opportunity for trading and bringing together buyers and sellers of securities.
The history of the stock market dates back several centuries. Its origin is often linked with the creation the government securities market in XV-XVI centuries. During this period, states began to produce and place securities both domestically and abroad to raise additional funds needed to cover the shortfall of funds for state needs. For example, in 1556, there was an exchange in Antwerp, where states could place their securities. At the beginning of the XVI century, the evolution of trade has led to the emergence of the stock exchanges.
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In 1531, Italian merchants established a kind of exchange in Bruges, which played a significant role in international trade, as it was the first international exchange. Improving the technology of the exchange operations has led to such concepts as the stock market report or the official exchange rate. In 1592, for the first time this exchange made public the list of value of the securities that were sold there. This year was the year of the birth of the stock exchange as a special organization involved in the trade of securities.
In the XVII century, the exchange trade center moved to the Netherlands, where securities trading took place inside a commodity exchange in 1611. The first stock market report of this exchange included 25 Dutch loans and four types of British government bonds.
The first non-government securities in the form of shares appeared in the XVII century on the Amsterdam stock exchange. The beginning of shares trading on the stock exchange was due to the East India Trading Company, which announced a subscription to participate in the profits of the company. The East India Company was given the right to trade in India, as well as all the rights that had the Dutch Republic in India. This caused a general interest in the securities of the company, and the Amsterdam Exchange became the central market of the East India Company shares. At the stock exchange in Amsterdam securities transactions were not only in cash but also in futures, which marked the formation of the speculative stock market.
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