Waste management is the isolation of industrial and household waste (often toxic) by placing at the landfills, burning at the incineration facilities, or by recycling.
The total volume of waste in the world is nearly 800 billion tons, which includes more than 300 billion tons of solid waste. Mining industry annually produces about 30 million tons of solid waste, and the primary processing of ores leaves 60-95% of the total recycled rock mass. Only 45-65% of solid waste from their total in the mining industry are used to backfill waste pits, gaps, and cracks from mining operations, about 1% for filling worked out space, and almost 5% is buried in the deep sea.
(Solid) waste disposal below ground surface reduces pollution, reduces the area of ??the abandoned lands, but carries a risk of contamination of groundwater, mineral resources, including mineral deposits. About 50% of industrial liquid waste is dumped in the world’s open water without purification. E.g., the U.S. losses from water pollution liquid waste are estimated at $ 7.5-11 billion annually. For the burial of industrial waste under the ground, old mines, special underground structures, and natural cavities of rocks are used. The excavation pits are used only in the absence of the groundwater and surface water flow. Salt mine are impervious to groundwater what makes them the safest and most beneficial place for the disposal of radioactive waste. There also are special underground storages, artificial cavities obtained by drilling method, which are left after gas or oil production.
Marine environment is used for the burial of the ground, extracted while deepening of the ports and shipping channels, as well as sewage sludge, industrial waste, construction waste, radioactive waste of low specific activity. The volume of global waste flooded at sea reaches 10% of the total waste amount, including approximately 80% of dumping ground. Typically, such a discharge occurs near the coast at shallow depths (10-100 m), and only radioactive waste to be hide far in the ocean at a depth of 4000 m. Discharge of waste in coastal waters can cause an increase in water turbidity, release of nutrients, metals , oil, and other substances contained in materials dumped into the water. However, due to the rapid deposition of suspensions at small depths and processes of dispersion and dilution, the negative effects of dumping waste in the water disappear soon enough (from several hours to a day). However, settling on the seabed the discharged materials become a source of water pollutants revenue in the bottom layers that may affect benthic organisms.
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