is a technological process of obtaining permanent bonding through the establishment of interatomic and intermolecular bonds between the welded parts when they are heated (locally or generally).
Welding uses various energy sources: an electric arc, electric current, gas flame, friction, laser radiation, ultrasound, and electron beam. Advances in the technology allow now to weld not only in factories, but also in various outside conditions, underwater, and even in outer space. The welding process is always related to the risk of fire, electric shock, toxic gases poisoning, eye, and other body parts damages by the heat, ultraviolet, infrared radiation, and spatters of molten metal.
The process of welding appeared in the Bronze Age, when people began to gain experience in the metals processing for making tools, military weapons, jewelry, and other products.
The first known method of welding was forge welding. It provided the high enough quality of joining at that time, especially when working with plastic metals, such as copper. With the discovery of bronze, which is harder and more difficult for forging, mould welding came. This type of welding can be found in bronze vessels of ancient Greece and Rome. Such welding was used in the construction of an iron pillar in Delhi, India.
In 1802, Vasily Petrov, a scientist from Russia, noticed that when electric current passes between two coal or metal stick, there is a bright electric arc, which has a very high temperature. He studied and described this phenomenon and pointed out the possibility of using the heat of an electric arc to melt metals, and thus laid the foundations for the arc welding of metals.
However, there is some information that the English chemist Sir Humphry Davy was the first researcher who discovered, examined, and described the electric arc in 1800.
At the time, Petrov’s research results were not used, neither Russia nor abroad. Only 80 years later, Russian engineers Nikolay Benardos and Nicholay Slavyanov used Petrov’s discovery in practice and have developed various methods of the industrial metal electric arc welding.
In 1882, Nikolay Benardos invented a method of arc welding using carbon electrode. In the following years he developed methods of arc welding, in which arc burns between two or more electrodes, welding in the protective gas atmosphere, spot welding using tongs, designed and built a number of welding machines, Nikolai Benardos patented in Russia and abroad a wide variety of inventions in the field of welding equipment and welding processes.
A good research proposal on welding has to consider all the important moment of this process. To do this, you must thoroughly analyze all the data available on the phenomenon. In this case, free example research paper topics on welding can become a great source of helpful information you can use for your work.
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