Physical activity are that intended to enhance, maintain or delay the degeneration of the body and its capacity with physical exercise used often to improve appearance or health, or to get better results at a sport practicing. Such training can be divided into strength and cardiovascular fitness, weight-reducing or weight-gaining purposes, leisure sport activity as a hobby, and professional elite training.
The training is preceded by learning steps. As a rule, a beginner learns intuitively and get acquainted with the environment and tools to be used. The more one exercises, the more experienced one gets.
Training of an elite athlete requires a high and advanced level of knowledge in the subject. When it comes to physical training or some exercise that requires motor skills, there is a motor learning through training.
Physical activity may have the weight reduction effect, since all activity burns energy. Exercises cause the body’s cells need for more oxygen. To provide them with oxygen the blood must be pumped faster. This leads to the higher respiration rates and higher heart rate. When blood is pumped faster body temperature increases and to lower it the body begins to sweat.
Physical activity is a cause of stress borne cells, such as muscle cells, due to the multiple cells are broken down during the exercise. After training, there is a recovery, and then the body defends itself against future overload by super-compensation, i.e., builds cells to replace those damaged, thus, building up muscles. Recovery is therefore important to exercise should not be destructive.
Another form of super-compensation and adaptation occurring during intense exercise often results in permanent open-heart muscle (called Sport Heart), more hemoglobin, greater physical work capacity and lower resting heart rate. However, some middle-aged men get slightly reduced cardiac muscle. A 20 years study of aging athletes have shown that prolonged hard physical exercise has no effect on the maximal heart rate, which decreases with age. However, the training effect on the oxygen uptake that is less impaired with age in those who trained intensely. The amount of body mass that is not made up of fat, decreases always with age, but decreases less for those who had a hard workout than those who exercised little or nothing, and bone mineral density remains sufficient or good. Exercise is usually recommended to reduce the risk of osteoporosis due to increasing bone density. Very intense aerobic exercise may reduce estrogen levels, which, however, has the opposite effect on bone density.
Too much or too heavy exercise is thought to cause menstrual disorders. Girls who exercise heavily may possibly get slightly delayed menarche. During extra intensive training periods, younger female athletes has up to 20% menstrual disorders, sometimes amenorrhea, while other sources claim that in some sports (gymnastics) 70% of female athletes are affected by amenorrhea, and that this is partly associated with decreased body fat and increased psychological stress.
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