Anglo-American war of 1812-1815 better known among English-speaking historians as the War of 1812 was the war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by the intervention of England in the U.S. commercial matters. Strained relations with the British in Canada led to the U.S. invasion plans of Canada, which, however, have never been realized. In 1814, British forces occupied Washington, DC and burned many buildings, including the White House. The peace treaty was signed in December 1814 in Ghent.
The British Navy seized American ships, often under the pretext that they were hiding British sailors, deserters. After the incident with the frigate Chesapeake (1807) and the adoption of the Embargo Act (1807) and the Law on the termination of relations (1810) in the United States, particularly in New England, a party of war has been formed – the War Hawks, which advocated war with Britain and hoped to expand the United States at the expense of Canada and Florida, has been elected to. June 18, 1812 President and Congress declared war on England.
Military campaign began in June 1812 at the US-Canadian border, in the Chesapeake and Mexico gulfs with varying success and ended in the spring of 1815. The British fought in alliance with local Indian tribes led by Tecumseh. There was also an intense naval warfare.
During the campaigns of 1812 and 1813, Americans proved to be unprepared to war, with failed attempts to occupy the territory of Canada. The British managed to gradually strengthen the blockade of the U.S. coast. However, on September 10, 1813 an American squadron defeated the enemy on Lake Erie, resulting in taking control of border areas in the West by the U.S. troupes. In 1814, the U.S. again was threatened with total defeat: after the victory over Napoleon in Europe, Britain sent a large force to fight the Americans and the U.S. government was insolvent until the fall.
The main areas of impact were New York (to cut off New England from the rest of the U.S.), New Orleans (to block the Mississippi River basin) and the Chesapeake Bay area (which was a deceptive maneuver). August 24, 1814 the British took Washington and burned it. However, they met fierce resistance on the outskirts of Baltimore at Fort McHenry, September 13-14. In the north, 10000 British soldiers flanked Americans, but on September 11, the Americans defeated the British fleet in the Bay Plattsburgh, and without the fleet support, the British ground forces were forced to retreat to Canada.
Negotiations on a peace treaty began in June 1814, and the Treaty of Ghent, which restored the prewar status quo, but decided territorial and economic contradictions that led to war, was signed December 24,. Total losses in the war Americans were 2260 people. This war is also known as the Second War of Independence (which is the name adopted in American historiography).
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