Weather modification refers to the impact on hydro-meteorological processes in order to manage them and reduce the possible damage to the population and the economy. Theoretically, it is also possible to use such effects for military purposes.
Use free sample research papers on weather modification to learn that an active cloud influence is a physicochemical attack on the cloud to cause rainfall or scattering the cloud without rain, or to prevent hail. This technology was developed in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. In particular, in 1946, an American atmospheric scientist Bernard Vonnegut (1914 – 1997) discovered the effect of silver iodide and lead iodide as centers for water crystallization that was used to create the equipment for artificial dissipation of clouds.
Today, the mechanism is mainly reduced to changing the phase state of the cloud seeding in it some agents, such as solid carbon dioxide and smoke of silver iodide or lead iodide. In the evaporation of the gritted carbon dioxide in the clouds a strong cooling (below 40° C) and, subsequently, the solution annealing is created, resulting in crystallization. The clouds turn into mixed, acquire colloid instability, and give precipitates, as happens naturally in a mixed cloud, according to the theory of the Swedish meteorologist Tor Bergeron.
Frozen drops are a partly cause of crystallization with other part in spontaneous arise of the large saturation. With the help of solid carbon dioxide, the creation of artificial ice clouds in the cloudless air is possible. Sprayed colloid solution of silver iodide, which has similarities with ice crystallography, also leads to the freezing of overcooled drops, acting like the freezing or sublimation nuclei. In the large and dense cumulus clouds, the appearance of the solid phase and the drops consolidation can be caused by the introduction into cloud of atomized water, droplets of which are growing due to coagulation. Hygroscopic particles or droplets of salt solutions, entered into the cloud, can cause precipitation from the cloud without the solid phase.
Active influence on fog is an impact aimed at the dispersion of the fog. To effect overcooled fog (at negative temperatures) solid carbon dioxide and smoke silver iodide are used to generate ice crystals in the same way as is done with the modification of the rain clouds Another method is to seed hygroscopic particles. For solid carbon dioxide and silver iodide seeding, ground installations and generators are used.
In the United States, methods of active typhoons modification have been developed to cause their destruction or change their trajectories. American scientists had expected, it would enough to destroy part of the clouds in a sector to break its energy balance, that will change the trajectory of the Typhoon. However, in the early 1980’s, the experiments under the Stormfury project did not confirm these assumptions, although not denied them.
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