American Civil War Research Paper

The victory in the first bourgeois revolution, which was the war for the independence at the end of the XVIII century, created the conditions for capitalist development of the USA. Mild climate and a great amount of mineral resources contributed to rapid economic growth. The location of the country having long naval borders gave the possibility to carry relatively small military spending on the national defense. However, capitalist relations in the U.S. developed unevenly: if the northern states quickly approved the bourgeois order, farm agriculture, growing capitalist industry, throughout the southern states dominated the slave system. In the northern states of slavery was abolished at the beginning of the XIX century, and in the South in 1860, there were 4 million black slaves. The main obstacle in the path of capitalist development throughout the country was the slavery.

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The planters of the South used extensive farming methods: constantly in need of new lands, they sought to seize the fertile lands in the West. However, North American bourgeoisie, farmers, and settlers had their own interest in those lands. Further expansion of the territory of plantation economy ensured the preservation of slavery. The southern planters traditionally exported agricultural products and raw materials to European countries and imported from there the products of heavy industry. As a result, North American manufacturers lost their source of raw materials and a market for industrial products. These factors led to conflicts between the capitalist North and slave-owning South. Because of the weakness of industrial and commercial bourgeoisie of the North, the political power belonged to the planters, who have advanced their henchmen in the president post. Desire to maintain low tariffs on imported European products also forced some farmers to give their votes to the southerners candidates.

However, an increasing number of people resisted slavery and in the 50s this struggle against slavery intensified. The need for the abolition of slavery became inevitable. During the armed struggle directed against slavery, in Kansas Republican Party was formed to unite the bourgeoisie, farmers, who were the opponents of slavery. Cause of the war between North and South was the election in 1860 to the post of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), one of the most talented leaders of the Republican Party and partisan of the slavery abolition. The planters decided to separate the southern states from the Union and began to prepare for war. In 1861, these states form a confederation, whose troops mutinied in April and captured forts and arsenals in the south. The followed Civil War was the result of growing economic and sociopolitical differences between the two social systems: the wage-labor system and the system of slavery.

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