Biodiversity is the variety of life in all its manifestations. In addition, biodiversity is usually used to refer to the diversity at three levels of organization: genetic diversity (diversity of genes and their), species diversity (diversity of species in the ecosystem) and, finally, ecosystem diversity, i.e., the diversity of the ecosystems themselves.
Basic scientific concepts of biodiversity were formulated only in the mid-twentieth century, which is directly linked to the development of quantitative methods in biology.
Origin of the term “biodiversity” is debatable. There is an opinion that the term “biodiversity” was first used by G. Bates in 1892. On the other hand there are suggestions that the term “BioDiversity” first introduced by B. Rosen in 1968 at a national forum “Strategy of the United States in relation to biological diversity,” and it should be noted that the neologism is as a shortened version of “biological diversity,” which originally was used only to describe a number of species.”
In his works, Robert Whittaker proposed a description of the levels ecosystem diversity organization and biodiversity dependence on environmental factors was studied.
According to his ideas, the following concepts have been isolated:
- alpha diversity – within the community,
- beta diversity – between communities,
- gamma diversity – overcenotical system according to the environment gradients.
Subsequently, these ideas were developed and proposed a number of different classifications. All this typological diversity was reduced to two types of diversity: a diversity within the biosystem and diversity between biosystems. The first is usually assessed using unary indices (e.g., measures of diversity), and the second – binary.
The magnitude of biodiversity within species, and within the entire biosphere is recognized in biology one of the main indicators of viability (survivability) of species and ecosystems as a whole and was named the principle of biological diversity. Indeed, at high uniformity characteristics of individuals within a species (this applies to humans, as well as to plants and microorganisms) any significant change in external conditions (weather, epidemic, change of feed, etc.) has more critical impact on the survival of the species, than when the latter has a high degree of biological diversity.
The same (on another level) applies to wealth (biodiversity) of species in the biosphere as a whole.
The history of mankind has already accumulated a number of examples of the negative consequences of too rough and simplified attempts to define some species, families and even ecosystems uniquely useful or uniquely harmful. Drainage of wetlands has led not only to a reduction in malaria mosquitoes, but also to a more rapid spring floods at the withering of the nearby fields in the summer, shooting wolves (“deer offenders”) on a closed plateau resulted in immoderate increase in the number of deer, the almost complete destruction of their feed and subsequent rampant case.
Biodiversity research proposal samples and examples will give you some ideas on this popular topic.
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