Karen Horney nee Danielsen 16 September 1885, Hamburg – died 4 December 1952, New York) was American psychoanalyst and psychologist, one of the key figures of neo Freudianism. She accentuated the influence of the social environment on the formation of personality. The basis of human motivation she saw in the sense of anxiety that causes a person to seek security and in which lies the need for self-actualization.
To write a good research paper on the topic you must know that Karen Horney moved to the U.S. from Germany in 1932 to work at the Chicago Psychoanalytic Institute. In 1934 she moved to New York, where he taught classes at the New School for Social Research, and the New York Psychoanalytic Institute. In 1941, she was expelled by her colleagues from the institute in connection with the departure from orthodox psychoanalysis so she based her own Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis.
As a result of her moving from Germany to the United States she was able to analyze the extent to which cultural environment affects the formation of neurotic behavior. She believed that neurosis is formed by the impact of the social environment and the destruction of human relationships. Orthodox psychoanalysis, in his turn, was focused on genetic and instinctive reasons. For example, the suppression (by culture) of instincts leads to the formation of neurosis (example – the Oedipus complex ). This changed the meaning of the therapy. The purpose of orthodox psychoanalysis was to help cope with your instincts. Horney’s goal of therapy was to restore relations with the people and yourself, searching for a point of support in inner-self, getting rid of neurotic defense mechanisms, which only partly could help a person cope with life’s challenges, but at a deeper look closing the possibility of normal life.
The basis of any neurosis is usually internal conflict (confrontation between something and something in the human psyche). Freudian neurotic conflict is the struggle of repressed (instincts) and displacing forces (culture). Horney in her early works put forward the proposition that the dynamic center of neurosis is the contradiction between conflicting trends of the neurotic personality.
In her later work, “Introspection” (1942) Horney called these protective tendencies neurotic trends, regarding them as compulsive, lying “at the heart of mental disorders… unconscious impulses that are being developed, because they allow a person to cope with life in spite of his fears, helplessness, and loneliness.”
One of the main neurotic trends, Horney believed compulsive need for love and compulsive desire for power. A neurotic desire to love and neurotic competition may be in conflict with each other – it is impossible to go over the heads of people and care for them (hoping to get love in return). In principle, even for a healthy person, the rivalry will mean deficit to give love and receive love (in the broadest sense of the word). Neurotic trends usually have function (hidden benefit). Ultimately, it comes down to the removal or mitigation of anxiety in specific person.
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