Large Hadron Collider Research Paper

Large Hadron Collider, abbreviated as LHC, is a particle accelerator at the oncoming bunches, designed for acceleration of protons and heavy ions (ions of lead) and study the impact of their products. Collider has been built at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), located near Geneva, on the border of Switzerland and France. LHC is the largest experimental installation in the world. Over 10 000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries has participated in the construction and research.

Those who are trying to write a decent research paper on Large Hadron Collider have to know that the word “Large” is the part of the name due to the Collider size: the length of the main accelerator ring is 26659 m; the word “Hadron” is due to the fact that it accelerates up hadrons, meaning heavy particles made up of quarks; the word “Collider” (from Engl. to collide) is due to the fact that the beams of particles are accelerated in opposite directions and collide in special points of collision.

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The trajectory of protons (heavy ions of lead Pb) begins in linear accelerators (at points p and Pb, respectively). Then the particles fall into the Proton Synchrotron booster (PS), follow to the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and, finally, go directly into the LHC tunnel. TOTEM and LCHf detectors are close to the CMS and ATLAS detectors, respectively.

The accelerator is expected to push protons with a total energy of 14 Tev (i.e. 14 teraelectronvolt or 14*1012 electronvolts) in the center of mass of incident particles, as well as the lead kernel with the energy of 5 Gev (5*109 electronvolts) for each pair of colliding nucleon. At the beginning of 2010, the LHC has surpassed the previous record by Tevatron Collider, located in the USA, the second large collider, which operated until the end of 2011, at the Enrico Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

Despite the fact that the adjustment of the equipment is stretched on for years and not yet completed, the LHC has already become the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, ten times greater than other colliders, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, operating at Brookhaven Lab, United States.

During the first weeks of operating, the LHC luminance did not exceed 1029 particles/cm ²*s, however, it continues to rise. The goal is to achieve nominal luminance of 1.7*1034 particles/cm²*s with the order-of-magnitude corresponding to the BaBar luminance (SLAC, United States) and Belle (KEK, Japan).

The accelerator is located in the same tunnel, which was first occupied by the Large Electron–Positron Collider. The tunnel with circumference 26.7 km goes underground in France and Switzerland. The depth of the tunnel is from 50 to 175 m, and the ring of the tunnel reaches approximately 1.4% tilted relative to the Earth’s surface. For retention, correction and focusing the proton beams, 1624 superconducting magnet with the total length of 22 km are used. Magnets operate at a temperature of 1.9 K (-271° c), which is slightly below the transition temperature of Helium.

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