Nutrition or dietology is the science that studies the circulation of the nutrients in the body (metabolism), uptake of these and their assimilability. It also deals with the relationships between diet and health, diet and nutritional needs. It also deals with the required quantities of each nutrient.
Nutrition helps people whose professional activity relates to nutrition, such as chefs, athletes and nutritionists, and may be helpful for those who want to understand the main principles of the dietology, as all people need to eat the right nutrients in the right amounts.
The science of nutrition is about 100 years old.
The main part of the science is about macronutrients. The most important of them is protein. The word “protein” comes from the Greek Proteos, which means the first or main.
Proteins are a very important part of a meal that you cannot be without. Proteins are the building blocks. Without them, nothing can be repaired or rebuilt; protein deficiency leads to a number of serious problems. 20 % of muscle tissue consists of protein and 78 % of water. Proteins are made up of 20 different amino acids, nine of which are essential amino acids for humans. It means that we are unable to build protein if we have a shortage of these amino acids.
All food that contains protein, also contains amino acids, but some foods contain a small amount of certain amino acids, and if it is an essential amino acid that lack, means that such protein is not full. If you eat a food that is poor, for example, in tryptophan (essential amino acid) and the other that is rich in it, you still get enough of it. The worn out phrase balanced diet thus describes still something that everyone needs. When it was discovered that there are differences between the proteins in different foods, a method has been developed to evaluate protein biological value (BV).
In the absence of other sources of energy, protein can be converted into energy, but this process also leads to some problems. When in the body there is a deficiency in energy, catabolic processes prevail, i.e., the body focuses on breaking down rather than build up. The body then looking up protein configurations not as it does usually (building blocks), but as energy source and splits these into energy which results primarily in skeletal muscle degradation, which normally is not taking place.
Half of the 20 amino acids can be converted into fat in the body. This is a very demanding process that takes place almost exclusively when there is elevated intake of protein and low fat intake. Another condition that allows the protein turns to fat is prolonged starvation. In such circumstances, the body secretes high levels of cortisol hormone, leading to the muscles proteins are broken down and, if necessary converted into fat.
Nutrition research paper samples are a good source of relevant information.
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