Research Paper on Ribosomes

Ribosomes are the enzymes in the cells where peptides, long chains of amino acids, are formed. This process is also called translation and is the central step in protein synthesis. Amino acids sequence of the peptide is determined by the genetic information in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribosomes are present both free in the cell cytoplasm and partly bound to the cell’s endoplasmic network.

The ribosome is the “machine” that provides the translation of the mRNA molecule in the synthesis of proteins. The genetic code provides the correspondence between the sequence and the mRNA sequence of the synthesized polypeptide. The ribosome uses tRNA or tRNA are used as “adapters” between the messenger RNA and amino acids.

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College and university student who are about to write their research paper on ribosomes should clearly understand that a ribosome consists of a smaller and a larger units, which are each built up of large RNA molecules (ribosomal RNA, rRNA) and several smaller proteins. The exact structure and shape varies slightly between different types of cells. In eukaryotes usually the two parts are designated 40S (smaller unit, 2.5 million daltons) and 60S (larger unit, 4 million Daltons), while parts of prokaryotes are designated 30S and 50S respectively after both sedimentation velocity in a centrifuge.

Ribosomes are present both free in the cell cytosol and in mitochondria and chloroplasts, and (in eukaryotes) bound to the cell nucleus or the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The free ribosomes can gather around a single mRNA strand and form a so-called polysome (polyribosom). These ribosomes usually produce proteins used in the cytosol or in the body. The membrane-bound ribosomes usually produce proteins used in the nucleus or being transported through the endoplasmic reticulum to be secreted from the cell into the environment or used in the cell membrane.

The drawing for the protein to be produced is a molecular messenger RNA (mRNA) is transported from the nucleus to the ribosomes. The larger and smaller ribosome are collected at the start codon (5′-end) of the mRNA molecule. Each codon, that is followed by 3 bases in the mRNA molecule specifies, according to the genetic code, a particular amino acid. For each type of amino acid, there is a specific variant of transfer RNA molecule (tRNA), that links the given amino acid, and exposes a complementary base sequence to match the codon. Ribosome use such tRNA molecules that join together piecemeal amino acids to a protein. Protein synthesis at the ribosome moves progressively along the messenger RNA molecule, and builds up a protein amino acid at a time. Often several ribosomes are simultaneously active at various positions along the mRNA molecule.

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