Amazon rainforest is the most significant portion of all protected area In Brazil. It covered the territory of nine countries: Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana, Bolivia, French Guiana, and Suriname. However, the vast majority of the Amazon rainforest is located within Brazil. It stretched on a flat plain, which covers almost the entire Amazon basin. The forest itself occupies 5.5 million square kilometers. Amazon rainforest is by far the largest tropical forest in the world.
Amazon rain forest is spread over 60 % of Brazil. Without a doubt, this is the richest region on living organisms in the world, it is here found about 20% of all plant species, perhaps, about the same species of birds and about 10 % of mammals in the world. A fundamental element of natural biocenosis is the Amazon River, the second longest in the world (about 7,000 km), which has about 1,000 tributaries and contains more than 20 % of all fresh water on the planet.
A year cycle in the Amazon rainforest is divided into two parts: the rainy season, which lasts from December to June (average temperatures ranging from 23°C to 30°C) and the dry season – from July to November (temperature ranging from 26°C to 40°C).
In general, the flora of the Amazon is characterized by significant biodiversity. Through the inventory of all the plants and animals of the rainy forests of Amazonia, it was revealed at least 40,000 species of plants, 1,294 species of birds, 3,000 species of fish, 428 species of amphibians, 378 species of reptiles, 427 species of mammals, and from 96660 to 128 843 species of invertebrates. Scientists estimate that 1 square kilometer is inhabited with 150,000 species of higher plants, and may contribute up to 90,790 tons of live plant mass.
According to experts, in the Amazon River there are up to 2,000 species of fish, it is ten times more than in any European river. Also plays a large number of local reptiles, among which the most common are caiman, giant anacondas, and other. Mammals species are mainly represented by Amazonian Manatee and pink dolphin. Jaguar may present a significant risk to humans.
Precautions should refer to local waters – rivers are full of electric eels, capable of generating an electrical charge that can kill a man. Piranhas and Candiru are also dangerous to humans, the latter are able to penetrate into the urinary tract of humans and animals, thus bring their prey to death.
Tailless amphibians, which live in the trees, are considered potentially dangerous. Their skin contains strong lipophilic poison, batrachotoxin. Local parasites – infection carriers – should be avoided. By the way, some of the local species of bats are the natural rabies virus carriers, and the Lutzomyia mosquitoes are carriers of leishmaniasis.
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