Animal abuse is an activity of a man not related to the self-defense, which harms animals, causing them physical or mental suffering. Such activity is not only in causing pain to the animal, but also fear, putting animals in danger, leaving them in a situation that causes excessive or unnecessary suffering, leaving pets unattended. In most countries, abuse of vertebrates, committed with the use of violent methods, or motives of hooliganism, or mercenary motives, or in the presence of minors, is a crime.
The first among the known laws that protect animals from cruelty, were published in Japan in the late XVII century, by the fifth shogun of the Tokugawa named Tsunayosi, nicknamed Inu cubo (Dog Shogun). Some speculate that Tsunayosi was guided by Buddhist canons of virtue, but some researchers call him a cruel ruler, tyrant.
Many scientists are inclined to believe that Shogun was mentally ill. His orders protected dogs, horses, cows, cats, chickens, turtles, and snakes from abuse, as well as fish, which was forbidden to trade in the markets during his tenure. Those who murdered an animal had to be subjected to harsh penalties that include expulsion, long imprisonment, or death penalty, particularly for farmers, who dared to haunt a pack of dogs that destroyed crops.
In recent years, the world becomes increasingly aware of the idea that the humane treatment of animals is one of the indicators of civilized society.
In XX century, the need to protect animals from cruelty has been recognized internationally. In particular, the European Convention for the Protection of Pet number 125 of 13 November 1987 recognizes the existence of human moral obligations to animals, indicating the value of the animals to the public, and that man and the animals are associated by particularly close ties. Basic principles of treatment of pets include a ban on causing suffering to animals and leaving them to fend for themselves. The Convention ensures animal health care, protection from exploitation in training and commercial cultivation.
In 1986, the Convention on the protection of experimental animals was adopted. It also declares the moral duty of man to all the animals and the need to reduce the suffering of animals in experiments because animals can feel pain and fear.
Free sample research paper topics on animal abuse and cruelty will show that currently, criminal penalties for cruelty to animals (as a separate type of crime) are provided by legislation of Austria, Algeria, Afghanistan, Vanuatu, Haiti, Georgia, Indonesia, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Costa Rica, Cote d’Ivoire Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Nigeria, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sudan, Thailand, Ukraine, Finland, France, Croatia.
However, there are significant differences in the size of criminal penalties for specified actions.
Thus, in the criminal law of Italy and Costa Rica the only sanction is a fine. Under the Criminal Code of Georgia, animal abuse is punishable by correctional labor for up to one year, with the criminal laws of Algeria, guilty faces up to 10 days imprisonment, under the Criminal Code of Kazakhstan it is up to 6 months imprisonment, under the Criminal Code of Austria and Spain – to 1 year in prison. Finally, in Latvia an animal offender can receive up to four years in prison.
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