Animal testing is the use of animals as a substitute or “model” to better understand the physiology of an organism and its response to various factors or substances (to test, verify, and evaluate the safety or toxicity), and especially to try to predict what happens in humans.
For reasons of size, price, and time, the vast majority of animal testing are done on rodents. The house mouse (Mus musculus), being still better known from genetic point of view, is used increasingly more often than that of other species, but there are other vertebrate or invertebrate animals used as model organisms.
Animal testing is a controversial practice; some people think scientists make animals suffer without providing any benefit either for them or for humans.
In fact, the scientific examination of the question: “Whether animal testing allows predicting what happens in humans?” Does not give the same answer and can be sometimes useful, sometimes useless, but often misused. These are the answers found in the scientific literature.
According to the report of the European Commission on animal testing made in 2003, about 10 million vertebrates, approximately 80% of which were rodents and rabbits, and 10,000 monkeys were used in 2002 by the Member States.
The animals used for the testing are sentient beings, capable of feeling pain. That is why they live in very controlled conditions subject to very strict standards. Moreover, they are provided by certified providers (the use of domestic animals is strictly forbidden.) In addition, testing must take place in an approved establishment and can only be conducted by a person holding a registered authorization to animal testing. Finally, the law requires testers to reduce all forms of suffering or distress (the use of analgesics, for example, is very common). Laboratory animals must be treated with care and respect (otherwise, the research staff may be subject to criminal sanctions).
Some animal welfare organizations say that these laws are not enforced, providing arguments based on various examples reported by their infiltrators in testing laboratories / farms that were, however, never mentioned to avoid any persecution. The animal protection associations play an important role in discussions on animal experimentation and help to establish a more respectful animal legislation.
A European directive on this issue was approved in 2010, but was hardly negotiated and still is controversial. Thus some governments would not publish the fact that genetically modified animals are used, and Germany abstained from the vote (in this countries, the management of this Directive, without consultation with researchers, is carried out today by the Ministry of Agriculture and not by scientific society.
To be skilled enough to write a good research proposal on the subject, college students should use free sample argumentative research paper topics on animal testing outline, which will show you that in November 2011, in addition to the European directive, Swiss and German scientists prepared and launched independently the “Basel Declaration,” soon signed by nearly 900 researchers and laboratories, including 500 from Switzerland and Germany. One of the most popular research paper topics you can choose for writing is pros and cons of animal testing.
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