Books banning was the rules set by the Roman Catholic Church to ban the reading of certain books under threat of excommunication. The rules also contain instructions about the reading, and selling, of books. The official purpose of books banning was protection of the faith and morals against abuse and theological errors.
Those students who are interested to write a good research paper on Books banning lust know that Books that passed censorship and were allowed to be printed had a stamp “Nihil obstat” (no obstacle) and “Imprimatur” (let it be printed) on the title page.
Catholic writers have the right to defend their books and were allowed to present a new, revised edition, to lift the ban. The banning was very effective: for many years the book, appear on the banning list, it was very difficult to find in the Catholic countries, especially outside the major cities. List had the force of law until 1966, when it was abolished by the Second Vatican Council. But remained a Catholic moral obligation not to sell or to read books that can endanger the faith or morals.
The first list was published in the Netherlands in 1529. Venice, and Paris followed the example of the Netherlands in 1543 and 1551 respectively. The first Roman list was compiled by Pope Paul IV. Censorship principles of this list were considered too rigid, and the Church changed the law on the books banning. This list served as the basis for all subsequent lists of banned books until in 1897 Pope Leo XIII has not published his own list, Index Leonianus.
In 1572, the Holy Congregation of the List was formed, specially designed for the detection of banned literature, making additions to the list, as well as creating lists corrections in cases where the book required corrections rather than its absolute prohibition. In such cases, the book was included in the list with the special notes, for example, «donec corrigatur» (banned, if not corrected) or «donec expurgetur» (banned, if not cleaned). As a result, sometimes appeared very long list of corrections, published in a special edition – Index Expurgatorius.
Congregation List was abolished in 1917, and the books banning became a prerogative of the Holy Cabinet. The rules for reading books were transferred to the new Code of Canon Law (Codex Iuris Canonici). The list went on and updated regularly thereafter. Last 32 edition of the list was published in 1948. There were 4,000 books banned because of heresy, immorality, pornography elements, political incorrectness, etc.
At various times in the list included works by authors such as Erasmus, Lorenzo Valla, Voltaire, Laurence Sterne, Giordano Bruno, Daniel Defoe, Galileo, Kepler, Copernicus, Sartre and others. The full list of authors whose books have been banned is given in the book «J. Martinez de Bujanda, Index librorum prohibitorum, 1600-1966 (Geneva, 2002).
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