Cement, along with concrete, is second most used material on our Planet with its annual consumption about 1 ton per person. Cement is produced in 156 countries. However, 70% of world cement production is concentrated in 10 countries with 70% of the world population. The cement industry is a key to economic development, since it produces the building materials for all kind of the construction. The pace of development is 1.5-2 times higher than the growth rate of world GDP.
Cement is one of the basic building materials often called the “bread of construction.” As a main binding material, cement is widely used in the production of concrete, reinforced concrete, mortar, as well as asbestos. It is in demand in the construction of new industrial facilities, renovation, and construction of buildings and individual structures.
Cement industry is one of the leading industries of the building materials production. It produces many different types of cement: Portland cement, slag cement, portland pozzolan, special cements (decorative, tampon, aluminous sulfate, cement for hydraulic structures, fast setting cement, etc.).
In the last few years, the share of developing countries increased significantly in both the production and consumption of cement. Their share in global consumption of cement had reached 90% by 2010. In 2012, the leader of the world cement industry was China, the country was accounted for almost 60% of global cement consumption (in 1990, it consumed only 18%)
In the past 20 years, cement industry itself went through a significant transformation. It has become truly global. In this market, there have emerged several multinational corporations. Seven major global cement corporations are accounted for about 30% of world production of cement in 2010. These companies are actively moving their facilities and building new plants in developing countries, where there was the highest growth in demand for construction materials.
For students, who write their research paper on cement industry, it is necessary to understand that last year the total production of cement reached more than 3 billion tons. Thus, for the last 11 years, cement production has been increasing every year. From 2000 to 2011, the cement production increased more than twice, from 1.6 billion tons to 3.6 billion tons. The highest rates of growth in the production (108-110%) were observed in 2003-2007. In 2008, at the beginning of the global economic crisis, the growth rate of cement decreased to 102.5%. However, in 2009 the world had produced over 3 billion tons of cement, which is 7.7% higher than in the previous year. In 2010, the output reached 3.3 billion tons (7.8%), and in 2011 – 3.6 billion tons
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