Depression (from the Latin depression) is a psychological disorder, which is characterized by low mood (gipotimii), inhibition of intellectual and motor activity, decreased vital impulses, pessimistic assessments of the reality, somatic and neurological disorders. Depression is inherent such cognitive features as negative self-feeling, scathing assessment of the external world and the future. Depressive states differ in a great variety and extent.
The division of depressive disorders to psychotic and neurotic depression overlaps with the division into endogenous and exogenous depression, being a multi-valued. It arose mainly influenced by the theoretical work of Freud and other psychoanalysts, with typology based on the severity of symptoms.
Another direction of creating typology of depression is associated with the individualization as a criterion for classification of the formal matter, the type of the causing affect.
Thus, we can emphasize sad, alarming, and apathetic affect, causing the formation of specific ideational and motor impairments. Psychological definition of affect is not the same as clinical. It leaves apathy outside the area of emotional phenomena, rather as a negative emotional sphere disorder, lack of affect.
Clusters of obligate and facultative depressive symptoms have been isolated empirically. This approach is the basis for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and recognizes the equality of all theoretical directions, combining biological, psychoanalytic, behavioral theories and research in solving the problems of treatment and study of mental disorders.
Summarizing the various classification of depression as a disorder defined, first of all, by the emotional experiences of the negative spectrum (gipotimnym affect), it is worth to consider the points of view of the authors of the basic models of depression in the etiology of these experiences.
It should be noted that even in the literature the term “depression” is used with different meanings.
According to Freud, outwardly directed hostility (aggression) in the form of deprivation of energy and self-blaming, in depression, focuses on the lost object that has become a part of the ego as a result of identification. Psychoanalysts believe that a predisposition to suffering is formed on the oral stage of infant development, in its maximum period of helplessness and dependence. Loss of the libido object (real or imagined) leads to a regression in which the ego goes into a dominant infantile trauma. The onset of depression is associated not with the real, but with the “internal object,” whose prototype is the mother or the mother’s breast, satisfying the vital needs of the baby.
The general principle position of psychoanalysts is the recognition of all depression as an exogenous disorder that arose in response to a traumatic event. Although depression can be treated as an autonomous entity, i.e., arose as a result of the frustrating action and persistent throughout life, and defined etiologically as reactive.
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