Internet Protocol, often abbreviated as IP, the communications protocol (i.e., a set of rules) is used for communicating data across a computer network, the Internet. Sometimes the term TCP/IP is used instead, which also mentions the IP protocol transmission control protocol which is used for a large portion of IP applications, such as e-mail (SMTP) and web (HTTP). The protocols developed in general by RFC procedure.
Those who are willing to write a successful free sample research paper on the topic it is necessary to understand that during operation IP transfers small packets of information, and identifies the sender and recipient address in the form of IP address. IP addresses are written as sequences of numbers separated by periods, such as “662.302.001.00”. The information can be transmitted via several alternative routes within the network.
IP is considered “unreliable.” This does not mean it does not properly send data over the network, but there are no guarantees for sent packets for the following reasons:
- corruption of data;
- order of arrival of packets (a packet can be sent before A package B, but B can get the package before the package A);
- packet loss or destruction;
- duplication of packets.
In terms of reliability, the only service offered by IP is to ensure that the headers of transmitted packets do not contain errors by use of checksum. If the header of a packet contains an error, the checksum will be invalid and the package will be destroyed without being transmitted. In case of destruction of a packet, no notification is sent to the sender (when a ICMP packet can be sent).
Guarantees that IP does not offer are delegated to higher level protocols. The main reason for this lack of reliability management is the desire to reduce the level of complexity of routers, and so enable them to have greater speed. The intelligence is then deported to the end points of the network.
The version of IP which is now in general use is called IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4). The next version, which began to develop in 1991 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and which are in use in parallel with IPv4 in parts of the Internet, is called IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6).
The specification was completed in 1997 and launched in July 2004.
The new protocol is compatible with the older; thereby they are able functioning together, if one uses a technique known as embedding. The main difference between the protocols is that IPv6 has a larger address part. Address length increases from 32 to 128 bit, which is considered sufficient for all the networks and computers of the future. It also includes clearer rules on quality control for management of real-time transmission of audio and video. The two protocols are operating in parallel for a long time.
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