The State of Israel is a country in Southwestern Asia, situated on the southeast coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It borders with Syria in the northeast, with Lebanon in the north, with Egypt in southwest, and with Jordan in the east. The independence of the State was proclaimed May 14, 1948 under General Assembly resolution number 181 of November 29, 1947.
According to the Declaration of Independence, Israel is a Jewish state. At the same time, Israel is a democratic and multi-ethnic state, in which all other religious and ethnic groups have equal rights with the Jews. Among them are Arab Muslims, Arab Christians, Druze, Bedouins, and others. In particular, the Arab parties are represented in the Knesset.
Over the last three millennia, the word “Israel” meant both the land of Israel (ivr. אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Eretz Yisrael) and the entire Jewish people. The source of this name is Genesis, where the patriarch Jacob, the son of Isaac, was named Israel after the fight with the angel.
Scholars differ in defining the meaning of this word. According to one version, the name comes from the verb sara (control, be strong, have power, given above), thus forming a word that means “to have authority over the forces.” Other possible values are “Prince of God” or “Fight / Battle of El.” Subsequently, the Jewish people, which comes from Jacob, was called “Children of Israel”, “The people of Israel” or “Israel.”
The first ever mention of the word “Israel” was found in the ceiling Merneptaha in Ancient Egypt (the end of the XIII century BC. E.) and belongs to the people, not the country.
The modern state was called the “Medinat Yisrael,” which means The State of Israel. The other names were also considered: Eretz Yisrael (Land of Israel), Zion, Judah. In the first weeks of independence, the new state government chose the word “Israel” to refer to citizens of the State. For the first time it was mentioned officially in the first speech of Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett.
One of the central tasks of Zionism was to create a Jewish state. This state of the Zionists decided to create in the Palestinian territories. In 80th years of the 19th century, Jews began to move there from Eastern Europe. After the World Zionist Organization was founded in 1897, Zionists began to create trusts, through which were financed resettlement of Jews to Palestine.
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