It is clear that any statement that does not match reality should be considered lying. However, with one important caveat: the speaker knows what is actually reality, but he deliberately distort it, in order to mislead someone. In fact, half-truths can also be called lying, when the speaker knows all the facts, but reveals only the portion, which is beneficial or at least harmless for him, but hides the facts that are not so nice and simply do not talk about them at all. Thus, hiding the truth is lying too.
When a person tells a lie, but believes that this is true, then we cannot say that a person is lying.
Lying is manipulation of information. If you organize types of manipulation by McCornack, we get the following types of fraud:
- Manipulation of the information quality. Falsification of certain facts, deliberately concealing the truth.
- Manipulation of information. Hiding of the truth or falsehood layering on really existing facts and presenting them as truth. Most often used in the media.
- Ambiguous messages, fuzzy data.
- Silence – the complete concealment of the truth.
- Distortion – transmission of intentionally false information.
The phenomenon is widely studied by psychology and psycholinguistics. Data that scientists are trying to get is very important for the more practical areas, such as criminology and diplomatic (representative) work. Dr. DePaulo proved that lying is a very common communicative phenomenon that involves a variety of situations and tactics of deception. The author proposes a model of lying that contains the following components: contents, types, and referent.
- Contents are emotion, action, justification, achievement, and fact.
- The types of lying are direct lying (lie in its pure form), exaggeration, and subtle lying (omission of important parts).
- Lying referent is the one about whom (or what) someone is lying (pro-self focused or on others).
Munchausen syndrome is another type of lying, when a speaker simulates, exaggerates, or artificially causes symptoms of a disease to undergo a medical examination, treatment, hospitalization, surgery, and more. To undergo a treatment, pseudo-patients mimic very skillfully various conditions and diseases, from tuberculosis to a heart attack, from acute abdominal pain to ulcers and cuts. They swallow keys, spoons, and nails to have a real reason for the operation, simulate bleeding, using the blood of animals or even deliberately cut their own body, they take handfuls of pills, knowing they do not need any and that they can even be harmed by it.
Those who have decided to prepare their research proposal on lying must know that many psychiatric disorders are accompanied by pathological lying of the patient. So-called mythomania is most common in people with antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. Such patients are lying all the time realizing their lies but without feeling remorse about it. Lying of such sick people is often childishly primitive, with no selfish purpose, just for the sake of process.
All this information and much more you will find in free example research paper topics on lying.
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