Malaria is widespread throughout the tropical and subtropical zone, as well as in the temperate zone – anywhere where there are conditions for the development of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, the larvae of which lives in shallow freshwater.
Now malaria is especially widespread in Africa, where in the mid 60s there were noted about 200 thousand cases per year. Malaria control is one of the central tasks of the health authorities of the Africa.
Those college and university students who have chosen malaria in Africa topic for their research papers have to know that malaria begins after an incubation period of about 2 weeks, and in some forms of malaria – up to 6 months or more.
The disease has a character of the evenly intermittent fever, in which there are febrile seizures with the body temperature at 40* C and alternated with periods of the normal body temperature. This happens because each attack of malaria coincides with the period of completion of schizogony of the parasite. The attack coincides with the moment when, formed as a result of schizogony, merozoites emerge from red blood cells and enter the blood plasma.
With the destruction of red blood cell, the products produced by the parasite enter the blood and cause an attack of malaria. After the merozoites entering into erythrocytes, the attack is terminated before the new schizogony.
In addition to febrile seizures malaria is expressed in severe anemia, in which the number of red blood cells can fall from 5 (normal) to 1 million. In the blood of the patients, as well as the liver and spleen, the melanin from the destroyed red blood cells is accumulated; liver and spleen are especially enlarged.
Malaria control in Africa is conducted on several lines. Effective measure is drying reservoirs, giving shelter to the larvae of Anopheles. Neftevanieis actively used for the destruction of the larvae. The oil spread over the surface of the water enters the larvae’s respiratory openings when it rise to the surface. Of great importance is the aircraft dusting of the reservoirs with powdered poisons – insecticides. This method should be used very carefully, since excessive use of poisons can kill the entire population of the pond. Killing adult mosquitoes in the winter on the wintering grounds – in the cellars, stalls, etc. A genetic method of vector control is applied. In this case, males of Anopheles are caught and exposed to X-rays. This disrupts the normal course of meiosis. Being released into the wild, they fertilize the females that later lay eggs with an inability to develop or give sterile offspring.
For the destruction of malaria parasites in the human body caught, quinine, quinacrine and other drugs are prescribed.
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