Tissue culture is a method of preserving viability of organs or their parts, sections of tissues, and individual cells outside the body. Tissue culture is based on creating aseptic conditions for food, gas exchange, and removal of metabolic products of cultured objects at a temperature close to the optimal for the body, of which the components are taken for cultivation.
The first experiments in tissue culture in animals were carried out in 1907 by R. Garrison: germs cells of the frog embryo nervous system have been remaining alive for a few weeks in a small amount of lymph, with continuous grows of new fibers. Further progress in the development of tissue culture were mainly due to the creation and improvement of synthetic nutrient medium containing the materials necessary to keep the cells alive.
Cell culture have three types: primary cultures that can be obtained from almost any organ, but having short life period – about 2-3 weeks; diploid culture is obtained typically from fetal tissue and preserves original biological properties for a long period of time. Diploid culture is capable to keep the constancy of the diploid number of chromosomes, as well as stable lines that can exist outside the body for a long time (decades). The method of monolayer cell, at which the cell suspension obtained from minced tissue, is cultured in nutrient solution, when exposed to enzymes, is quite widespread.
Currently, there are many examples of successful cultivation of living tissue, but they are usualy too complex and are not suitable for the production of large areas of living tissue. In other words, today it is possible to culture living tissue of micron thickness, but when it is about inches, modern technology is powerless.
The new technology solves this problem. First, biomaterials are distributed by the microchannels of special devices. Then biomaterials are mixed and react chemically to form a “mosaic” hydrogel. The layers of biocompatible hydrogel with living cells are the perfect medium for high-precision filling by cells of all types.
This new approach to tissue engineering, unlike common techniques (e.g. seeding cells into three-dimensional matrix), creates ideal conditions for the growth of various cells. Cells can be put in a fixed location with high accuracy, collecting layers of a hydrogel, which is then transformed into the living tissue of any complexity. In this case, the living cells are able to stretch and exchange signals, which is critical to creating a full-fledged muscle, skin, etc. As a result, the recipient gets an implant that will not be rejected by his immune system.
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