Mark Twain (born Samuel Langhorne Clemens) was an American writer. Mark Twain was born November 30, 1835 in the village of Florida, Missouri. He spent his childhood in the town of Hannibal on the Mississippi. He was a student of the typesetter and later with his brother published a newspaper in Hannibal, then Keokuk, Iowa. In 1857, Mark Twain became a student pilot, realizing his childhood dream “to know the river.” He received his pilot license in April 1859. In 1861, Mark Twain moved to Nevada and for almost a year, he had been a prospector in the silver mines.
Having written several humoresques for the Territorial Enterprise Journal in Virginia City, in August 1862, he was invited to become a co-worker. For his pseudonym, he chose the expression of the Mississippi leadsmen, called out “Mark Twain,” indicating depth sufficient for safe navigation.
In May 1864, Twain moved to San Francisco and has been working there for two years. On the crest of his success, he gave humorous lectures about Hawaii during his three-month American cities tour. As a correspondent of the Alta California journal he participated in a Mediterranean cruise on the Quaker City, during which he gathered material for his book The Innocents Abroad (1869), and became friends with Charles Langdon from Elmira, New York and February 2, whose sister Olivia he married in 1870. In 1871, Twain moved to Hartford, Connecticut, where he lived 20 happiest years of his life. In 1884, he founded the publishing firm, nominally headed by Charles L. Webster, the husband of his niece. Among the first publications of the company was the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) by Twain and best-selling Memoirs (1885) by eighteenth U.S. President William S. Grant. During the economic crisis of 1893-1894 publisher went bankrupt.
In order to improve his economic standing, he moved with his family to Europe in 1891. In four years, when his debts were paid, the family returned to homeland. Four years later, in 1904, his wife died, and on Christmas Eve 1909 in Redding, Connecticut) his daughter Jin died because of an epileptic attack (earlier, in 1896, beloved daughter Susie died of meningitis). Mark Twain died in Redding April 21, 1910.
Twain was proud of public recognition, he especially appreciated the Doctor of Letters degree by Oxford University (1907), but has also known the bitterness of life. His latest, the most acerbic denunciation of “damned human race” was the Letters from the Earth, which his daughter Clara kept unpublished until 1962.
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