Mozambique, formally the Republic of Mozambique, is a republic in southeastern Africa. The country is located in the Indian Ocean and is separated from Madagascar in the east by the Mozambique Channel. It is bordered to the south and west to South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, in the northwest to Zambia and in the north to Malawi and Tanzania. In the middle part of the country the river Zambezi flows.
Mozambique was a Portuguese area of interest from the 1500s and in the 1800’s became a colony. Between 1951 and 1975 it was a Portuguese overseas territory located before an armed liberation struggle of 1964 after which it became independent in 1975, under the leadership of Samora Machel.
Research paper on the topic will teach that Mozambique is considered one of the world’s poorest countries, and is highly dependent on foreign aid. The population of the country consists of several different peoples who mostly engaged in agriculture.
The name Mozambique originates from 1895; the Portuguese earlier name for the area was Estado Africa Oriental.
After nearly five centuries as a Portuguese colony, Portuguese East Africa, Mozambique became independent in 1975 after Mozambican War of Independence 1964-1974. This was partly due to a left-wing revolution in Portugal in 1974, and a protracted guerrilla war in Mozambique under the leadership of the Marxist-Leninist guerrillas Frelimo and its President Samora Machel. The exodus of the white Portuguese population (who were told to leave the country within 48 hours), an economic dependence on South Africa, generally incompetent indigenous leaders, corruption, a long drought and a long civil war that was fueled by the apartheid regime in South Africa, hindered the country’s development. The ruling party Frelimo formally abandoned Marxism in 1989. With the help of the United Nations negotiated in 1992 a peace deal with the rebels in the civil war and in 1994 was held multiparty elections, but the possibilities for opposition are limited. 1999 and 2000 saw major flooding which damaged the economy. The country sought and received 1995 entry in the Commonwealth (Commonwealth of Nations), although it has never been a British possession, but Portuguese. The reason was the geographical position, surrounded by Commonwealth countries.
Mozambique’s geography is marked by the long coast facing the Indian Ocean to the east and north-south mountain range in the hinterland with Binga (2437 m alt.) as highest point.
The country’s largest rivers are the Zambezi and Limpopo, both of which flow into the Indian Ocean. Geographically, the country can be divided into three main regions: Mozambique Plain, Zambezi highland and Malawi plateau east of Lake Malawi.
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world’s poorest countries. The situation was complicated by the brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992.
1987 made some major economic reforms to stabilize the economy. With help from abroad and greater political stability since 1994, economic growth has increased. Inflation was below 10% at the end of the 1990s, but was re-double digit during 2000-2002. Mozambique remains dependent on foreign economic aid (2010, 44% of the budget on foreign aid) and the majority of the population is much poorer. The largest part of the labor force employed in agriculture.
Foreign investors have started an aluminum smelter, and there are plans to extract titanium. This will increase the country’s export earnings.
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