Taiwan (officially The Republic of China, Traditional Chinese: ????, Simplified Chinese :????, Tongyong Pinyin: Zhonghua Mínguó, hanyu pinyin: Zhonghua Mínguó) is a state that includes the island of Taiwan in the Pacific and a few smaller islands, including Pescadorerna, Kinmen, and Matsu Islands, and claims the Chinese mainland currently controlled by the People’s Republic of China.
The Republic of China was founded January 1, 1912, since the Chinese revolution leader Sun Yat-sen returned from exile in the United States, then the more ancient dynastic Chinese empire (then under the leadership of Manchurian family named Qing) was abolished. In 1949, in connection with Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party proclaiming the new state of the People’s Republic of China in Beijing, the whole of the previous Chinese leadership, including the majority of the Chinese army, fled to the island of Taiwan.
There, they created a new state administration, as in competition with the People’s leaders in Beijing claimed to represent the whole of China, to 1971 represented in the United Nations and its Security Council by China government in Taipei.
China, which controls mainland, however, considers that the island of Taiwan is an “non- exempt” part of the People’s Republic of China. The Republic of China shares this view in reverse perspective, even if the requirements for a formal declaration of independence grown stronger in recent years, particularly after democratization. The Republic of China is recognized today only by 25 states (most of Latin America, the largest of which is Paraguay), and thus is the only functioning democracy lacking a seat in the United Nations.
The history of Taiwan dates back to 1544, when it was visited in by a Portuguese ship, but Portugal never initiated any colonization of the island. On August 26, 1624, there was established a Dutch colony, which was to continue until the Chinese warlord Koxinga (hanyu pinyin: Zheng Chenggong) defeated and expelled the Dutch in 1662, after which he founded the Tung Ning Kingdom. In 1683, the island became a part of China, which at that time was ruled by Qing dynasty. During the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) in the late Qing Dynasty China suffered a military defeat against Japan and was forced to cede Taiwan. The island was reverted to the Republic of China after Japan’s loss in World War II in 1945. After the communist guerrillas during Mao Zedong’s victory over the Nationalist Kuomintang government troops under Chiang Kai- shek in the Chinese Civil War (1928-1949) and the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Oct. 1, 1949, about 1.5 million people, mostly Kuomintang leadership and what remained of the Nationalist army escaped to Taiwan. They established a government on the island with the foundation in the 1947 constitution and Chiang as president until his death in 1975, when he was succeeded by his son Chiang Ching-kuo.
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