Nanoparticle is defined by ISO TS/27687 as a nano-object whose dimensions are on the nanometer scale. That is to say, a particle whose nominal diameter is less than 100 nm. Another broader definition or the term “nanoparticle” is an assembly of atoms where at least one is with dimension on the nanometer scale.
Since the ancient times nanoparticles have been the object of heightened interest (see the ancient Greeks study on the minimum size of objects, which used for this purpose word “atom”). Today physicists and chemists continue to research and discover, synthesize and study nanoparticles to understand and master their structures and properties. Moreover, nanoparticles are often used in modern biology and biochemistry as cellular markers, particle vaccine, support for fluorescent markers, etc.
Due to their properties, nanoparticles are interesting for Industry (nanotechnology), they are increasingly studied, especially since the 1990s. Nanoparticles, for quite sometime now, are listed in the composition of various health products (sunscreens and cosmetics), the construction materials (exterior coatings, paints, and varnishes furniture), as well as in other products, such as fuel catalyst, different coatings and films, electronics and computers, etc.
Nanoparticles owe their properties to the fact that the properties of material change significantly when the size of the object approaches the nanometer scale. It happens partly because the surface of a material plays an increasingly large role in its physical properties when its size decreases, while the number of atoms belonging to the surface is negligible in the case of a macroscopic material. By contrast, for an nanoscale object, the fraction of atoms belonging to the surface is far from negligible.
Among other things presented in their research paper on nanoparticles, college students have to indicate that the melting temperature of a pure substance of macroscopic size is identical to its solidification temperature (e.g. 0 ° C for water). For a nanoparticle, this is no longer the case and the material has a hysteresis centered around the transition temperature of the pure phase macroscopic this hysteresis depends on the size of the nanoparticle; the hardness and durability of a macroscopic material is not the same as that of a nanoscale material. It is usually much higher; the dynamics of the interaction between the electrons of a nanoparticle and the modes of vibration of the crystal lattice (phonons) depends drastically the size of the nanoparticle.
For those of you who study modern nanotechnology, it is very important to write an interesting and argumentative research project on nanoparticles. To do that, we would recommend you to consult free example research proposals on the chosen subject. Due to their proper structure, you will be able to understand what principles are used for scientific text writing. Especially so that it is not difficult to find a couple of these on the Web.
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