Nanomedicine is a medical application of nanotechnology. And even the future application of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the consequences of toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. A nanometer (nm) is one millionth of a millimeter.
Just as traditional medicine, it includes diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, but all of this is done by molecular tools. Going to the nanoscale in medical instruments has a logical explanation. The main object of the impact of modern medicine is a cell, often – macromolecules (DNA, proteins, polysaccharides, etc.). However, if the cell size is of 7-20 mm, and the diameter of the DNA double helix is ??2.4 nm, then the tools for their repair must be of the same order as the object, i.e., the nanometer range.
The current (2013) level of nanomedicine is a delivery of drugs and diagnostic agents to the right place in the body. Such targeted delivery provides a more effective action of drugs and preserves surrounding tissue. It uses nanocapsules (stealth liposome) or vectors for gene therapy (non-viral and viral).
In theory, nanotechnology may build small nano-robots, nanobots that would be an nanometer level army in our body, programmed to perform almost any activity. Such nanobots will have several consecutive tasks. They are to find the target in the body cells or go through all the barriers to deliver the substance for the treatment or diagnosis, then get inside the cells to deliver the load. After completing the task they would have to break up into pieces and leave the body. To ensure buy ciprofloxacin generic that all these stages of action, they need to have well-defined properties. Have receptors for directional movement to the target. Have the ability to pass through cell membranes. Release the content exactly the right time and right place, to be non-toxic.
As the Dr.Flor says, one of the most promising applications would be the ability to program these nanobots to seek and destroy the cells responsible for cancer formation. The nanomedicine nanobots will also be able to perform muscular or bony tissue repair. Fractures may be a thing of the past, the nanobots could be programmed to identify cracks in the bones and fix them in two ways, making some process to accelerate the recovery of broken bone or even merging two bones.
Most of nanomedicine scientists are looking forward using nanobots in gene therapy. Viral vectors are a real embodiment of nanorobots (albeit with some significant drawbacks, such as their virulence and immune response to them). These drawbacks encourage the development of alternative – non-viral vectors that mimic the structure of the virus particle. Although they have a problem to overcome: to ensure efficient loading drugs and signal for its release.
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