Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria, born December 1, 1949 in Medellin, Colombia, dead December 2, 1993 in Sammi city, in the Colombian gangster and drug² lord, leader of Medellín Cartel.
Pablo Escobar began his criminal career in his hometown of Medellín as car thief. He stole cars, stripped them down, and then he sold the parts. He then moved on to cocaine sales and began the construction of his drug empire. Cocaine traffic from Colombia, mainly to the United States made Escobar one of the world’s richest people (in 1989, the Forbes listed him as the world’s seventh richest man). According to estimates, Medellín Cartel earned 25 billion USD during its heyday. For his huge incomes Escobar bought an exclusive hacienda, a private zoo, airplanes, helicopters, cars, and much more. Escobar was a ruthless man and his motto was Plata o Plomo?, i.e., money (silver) or lead?, which meant that it either be a bribe or death.
Students writing research paper on Pablo Escobar must mention in their works that with his wealth, Escobar won popularity of a Robin Hood among Medellín’s poor residents through charitable donations, and there was a period in the early 1980s, when Escobar was politically active and was elected as a deputy to the Parliament. According to sources, he had the ambition to eventually become the President of the country. Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara Bonilla pointed out, however, Escobar as criminal, which led Escobar to have him murdered in 1984, whereupon he went into exile in Panama and Nicaragua. In 1989, he ordered the assassination of presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galán. Medellín Cartel engaged in outright terrorist activities not only against the judiciary but also the civilian population, including blew up an airplane in an attempt to kill a presidential candidate César Gaviria, an attack that killed 110 people (not including Gaviria, who was not on board) and bombed newspaper offices.
Escobar surrendered eventually to the authorities after being ascertained, through a constitutional amendment, that he could not be extradited from Colombia to the United States. Escobar was placed in La Catedral, a luxurious “prison,” which Escobar himself was designing and choosing. From there he was able to continue to control his crime empire, and after he was threatened to be moved to a regular prison, he had to escape.
In order to assist the Colombian police and military troops to find Pablo Special Forces Delta Force from the U.S. were sent to Colombia during the summer of 1992. The hunt for Pablo Escobar could begin. With the help of surveillance and interception, attempts were made to locate his hideout in Medellin.
Operational responsibility was led by Colonel Hugo Martinez. Finally managed to trace a call from Escobar’s cell phone, and could thereby locate him. Upon arrest Escobar and his bodyguard tried to escape but both were shot dead.
While many celebrated Escobar’s death, he still had many admirers; thousands of mourners visited his burial.
Escobar’s widow and two children fled from Colombia and had difficulties getting asylum abroad. His son Juan Pablo has changed his name to Sebastian Marroquin and is an architect in Buenos Aires, Argentina. His reconciliation meeting with the murder victims Lara Bonilla and Galán’s sons is depicted in documentary Sins of My Father (2009).
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