Painting is a visual art associated with the transmission of visual images by applying paint to the solid or flexible surface.
There are two types of painting: panel and mural. Panel painting includes works that exist regardless of the place of creation. This is mainly pictures created on the easel (i.e., machine tool) of the artist. Works made in oils dominate in panel painting, but an artist can use other dyes (tempera, acrylic paints, etc.). Paintings are painted mostly on canvas, stretched on a frame, or glued on cardboard, and on cardboard itself. Wooden planks were widely used in the past, as well as any other flat material. The most common are paintings made on flat or nearly flat surfaces such as canvas stretched on a frame, wood, fabric, finished surfaces of walls, etc. There is also a narrow interpretation of the term as the art works painted in oils on canvas, cardboard, masonite, and other similar materials.
The mural painting is done directly on the walls and ceilings of buildings and other structures. Mural painting in water-colors on wet plaster (fresco) dominated in Italy prior to the XVI century. Later paintings were made in little suited to the mural oil painting.
Color images on paper (water-color, gouache, pastel, etc.) formally (for example, at the place in the collection) are referred to the drawing, but these works are often viewed as paintings. All other methods the color image, including images, created by using computer technology relate to drawing.
The oldest paintings known to date are in the Chauvet Cave in France, and have, according to most historians, about thirty-two thousand years. Painted and engraved with black pigment and red ocher, they mostly represent animals with rhinoceros, horses, buffalo, lions, and men. There are other examples of such paintings in Spain, France, Portugal, Australia, China, etc.
In Western cultures, water-color and oil painting are the most popular media, with complex and rich traditions in the choice of models and themes. In Eastern countries, it is black or colored ink that has always prevailed.
From the second half of the nineteenth century, painting lost much of its historic role, which was to present a snapshot of an observed scene, as photography became more widespread. In this context, in the late nineteenth century there appeared new artistic movements such as Fauvism, Impressionism, Expressionism, Post-Impressionism, Dadaism, and Cubism, which have profoundly changed the perception of world, inherited from the Renaissance.
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