Anatomy (from the Greek. ???– again, top and ????? – “cut into,” “dissect”) is a section of biology and particularly of morphology, studying the structure of the body and its parts at a level above the cell. Anatomy as a science (actually the subject of anatomy) studies not only the external structure of the organism as a whole, but also the internal shape and structure of bodies belonging to its composition. Modern anatomy with microscopic sections of anatomical specimens was able to broaden the horizons of knowledge and highlight another aspect of the morphological sciences, microscopic anatomy. In turn, the microscopic anatomy is related closely to the science of tissues (histology from the Greek. Hystós – tissue), which studies the patterns of development and the structure of tissues, as well as the science of cells (cytology, from the Greek. Cýtos – cell), which explores patterns of development, structure, and the activities of individual cells, which make up the tissues and organs of the macro body. Taken together, anatomy, histology, cytology, and embryology (from the Greek. Émbryon – embryo) constitute the general science of form, development, and structure of the body – morphology (from the Greek. Morphé – form)
Plant anatomy studies the structure and the relative position of the tissue complexes in plants. It is a branch of botany that studies the structure of plants at the level of tissues and cells, patterns of development and distribution of tissues in individual organs. Histology of plants is the section of botany that studies the structure, development, and function of plant tissue and is usually regarded as an integral part of the anatomy of plants. Plant anatomy is part of the morphology of the plants considered in the broad sense (in the narrow sense, morphology studies the structure and shaping of plants at the macroscopic (mainly at the organismal) level. Plant anatomy is widely used in taxonomy and plant breeding. Plant anatomy is related closely to the physiology of plants, a section of botany that studies the life processes in plants. Moreover, the study of the structure of plant cells eventually stood out in a separate section of Botany, Plant cytology.
Anatomy of animals is the science that deals with the study of the internal structure of living organisms, the structure of the representatives of the animal kingdom, the structural arrangement of the organ systems, individual organs, and tissues of the body. As a branch of science, it studies the structure and positioning of complex tissue in animals.
Human anatomy is a branch of biology that studies the morphology of the human body, its organs and systems, as well as the structure and relative position of the tissue complexes in humans. This branch of science is important for both biology and medicine. In addition, knowledge of anatomy is necessary in the applied arts to pass the correct proportions, postures, gestures, and facial expressions of man. Thus, the subject of the study of human anatomy is the shape and structure of the origin and development of the human body.
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