Volcanoes are a geologic formation (tectonic phenomenon), when lava, ash, hot gases, water vapor and fragments of rocks are emitted through the canals and fissures in the earth’s crust.
Branch of geology that studies volcanoes is called volcanology.
The word “volcano” is derived from the volcanic island Vulkano, whose name comes from the Roman god Vulcan, whose forge, by the belief of the ancient Romans, was on the island.
Volcanoes usually have a conical shape of the crater with hollow funnel on top. Some volcanic eruptions, such as Mount Vesuvius and Stromboli in Italy, occur as explosion, bringing great destruction, others, such as in Hawaii, are “quiet”: lava just climbs up the crater and overflows.
The main cause of the eruption is the gas pressure in the magma. Volcanoes are divided into active, dormant, relatively extinct, and extinct.
Each year, there are about 50 volcanoes on Earth. Depending on the shape of submarine channels, central and fissure volcanoes can be distinguished. Mantle, cow, and mixed feed volcanoes can be defined by the depth of magma chambers. Volcanoes are usually located in tectonically active areas, most of them – in island arcs and mountains.
A total amount of active volcanoes on Earth is 1343. According to some researchers, Earth’s largest volcano is Yellowstone. This is one of the extinct volcanos. His latest powerful eruption occurred 600 thousand years ago. However, over the last 100 years recorded the uplift of the volcano caldera center at 8 m, indicating the increase in internal pressure.
Krakatau volcano, located in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra, is famous for its violent eruptions. Its height is 813 meters. During the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883, more than 18 km³ of ash was ejected. It caused a tsunami and resulted in tens of thousands of victims. However, the most catastrophic in history is considered the eruption of the Indonesian volcano Toba.
Volcanoes brings to the surface in average no less than 5.6 km3 of volcanic material per year, approximately 80% of which is accounted for underwater volcanoes and only 20% of the land. The most intensive production of volcanic material (about 4 km3 per year) occurs along mid-ocean ridges. Maximum relative height (exceeding the top of the cone base) of the Earth’s active volcanoes reaches 9 km in the oceans, 6 km in the island arcs, 3 km in the mountain formations.
Researchers, who write their research proposal on volcanoes, have to remember that four main types of eruptions are identified by the lava viscosity: volcanic, mixed, extrusive, and explosive.
Free sample research paper topics on volcanoes can be a great resource of necessary information. All you have to do is to find a couple of them on the Web and study them carefully.
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