discrimination, which is income inequality between men and women, have caused debate among scientists, sociologists, and economists with the subject to quantify the share that goes to the biological differences between the sexes, economic preferences (the number of hours worked) or gender discrimination.
A UN report shows that in 2004, women working in the manufacturing sector, almost everywhere in the world, were paid less than their male colleagues regardless of age, experience, and other factors. In the UK, the average female wage is 79% of that of a male, Japan 60%, France 78%, Germany 74%. In developed countries, Scandinavia stands by its relative equality since women earn 87% as much as men in Denmark and 91% in Sweden. Among the most unequal countries, Botswana and Paraguay with 53%. Among countries where inequality is reversed, are Switzerland (133%) and Qatar (194%).
More recent investigation showed that the average deviation of 63 countries surveyed was 15.6% (the salary of a woman grew up to average 84.8% of that of a man). These statistics exclude the informal sector.
Paid less, women are less often promoted to leadership positions and therefore benefit less than men of the higher wages that come with it. According to the Gazette des communes in France, women represent 59.1% of employees, with a peak of 77% in the public hospital, followed by the Ministry of Education. In total, all administrations combined, they hold 16% of managerial jobs, the lowest being in the National Education where only 11.3% of women participate in management.
Ironically, in the United States and France MBA graduates are mostly women (43% for the U.S.), but only 1.5% of CEOs are women and in the 1500 largest U.S. companies, they represent only 2.5% of the highest paid positions.
What is true in general for the U.S. MBA is also true for the most prestigious French business school, HEC. The paradox is that the most tangible problem is the qualities inherently attributed to women: modesty, discretion, and even silence. If a woman asks for a promotion, it violates several of these feminine attributes: she ceases to be modest believing she deserves a promotion, she speaks (instead of silence), etc. Finally, she would be criticized for her “disproportionate” ambition and “inappropriate” aggression, when for men this kind of behavior is considered normal and even positive.
Students writing their research proposals on wage discrimination must consult free example research paper topics, from which they can learn that a study by economists behaviorists have shown that women are less motivated to earn money. According to them, the myth of the young wolf with long teeth has never existed and probably never will exist.
This difference in motivation could, according to some authors, also be related to the fact that women are, for cultural reasons, often married to men who can provide for their financial needs, and that this difference in income between husband and the woman is the raison d’être. Under these conditions, women are faced with less demanding financial imperatives, which tends to make wage bargaining less arduous.
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