Women entrepreneurship is a business, which is headed by women. Women entrepreneurship has become a massive phenomenon in the twentieth century and was called the quiet revolution.
In a postindustrial society, there were special preconditions for women entrepreneurship – the transition from commodity production to services, and a woman in such a situation was particularly demanded by society. The women’s social skills and psychological characteristics were demanded, especially the ability to generate new ideas in non-standard conditions, the ability to inspire confidence, intuition, etc.
The most dynamic process of establishing women entrepreneurship could be seen in the United States, where more than 30% of small business was in the hands of women, and this number tends to increase. On a global dimension, women own more than one third of business and hire quarter of the workforce. In families with two working adults about one quarter of women earn more than their husbands. As negative factors for the development of women’s entrepreneurship we should mention gender discrimination, as well as (indicated, in particular, by psychologist Horner) “pattern of internal barriers” – a fear of leadership or fear of success.
Women are afraid of negative evaluation by the close (or not close) males. Moreover, the fear of leadership is not only peculiar to adult women, which can be determined by the peculiarities of the female experience, but even to able, gifted girls. In addition, an important factor is the uncertainty of women self-confidence and low self-esteem, aggravated by the lack of necessary professional ambition. Another factor is the lack of a sufficient number of examples to follow. In general, the power of sex-role stereotyping continues is dominant, but that does not mean that in the future, due to the ongoing influx of women in business, it will not relent.
The problem of women entrepreneurship in the world is quite extensively studied, particularly in terms of the need for state support for women entrepreneurship for economic prosperity. In the United States, the Section of female small business of the U.S. Congress is created, with which Congress passed the Act on Women’s Business (1988). The final report of the Department of new features, prepared by European explorers to the Commission of the European Communities, was focused on four objects: 1) the state of women’s entrepreneurship in the EU, 2) methodological approaches, the main features and typology of female entrepreneurship, 3) help to women entrepreneurs and their place in the common system to support new enterprises, 4) business and problems of equal opportunities for male and female entrepreneurs.
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