Woodrow Wilson, born December 28, 1856 in Staunton, Virginia, died February 3, 1924 In Washington, DC, was an American politician (a democrat) and political scientists. He was the governor of New Jersey in 1911 and the U.S. President from 1913 to 1921.
He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919, and are often located high in the list of the top U.S. Presidents. Among his most memorable actions, there was the foundation of The Federal Reserve Bank, the introduction of direct elections to the U.S. Senate, federal racial segregation, federal income tax and women’s suffrage in the United States, as well as entry into the First World War. At peace talks in Versailles, he played an active role, which resulted in Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the League of Nations, which would ensure a lasting and stable peace, but failed to win desirable pitch, then a much harder line against Germany was enforced and the Senate voted against the U.S. membership in NF.
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Wilson’s overwork resulted in illness and a stroke, which partially paralyzed him and severely limited his power in favor of his wife and advisor until his retirement. This combined with his vice president, Thomas Marshall’s unwillingness to stand the paved way led for a Republican landslide in November 1920.
Wilson grew up in Augusta, Georgia, where his father, Dr. Joseph Wilson, who was Presbyterian minister, became professor of theology. Woodrow Wilson first studied law, but dropped out for health reasons. A short period in 1882, he set up a law firm as well, but realized he did not like this and started to study political science at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, and graduated as Doctor of Philosophy. In 1890, he became professor of jurisprudence and political economy at Princeton University and in 1902, he was appointed Rector of the University.
Wilson’s biographer Arthur S. Link describes him, however, as an intellectual lightweight. His only work of importance was Congressional Government, in which he condemns the U.S. Constitution with its checks and balances. Voters could not, he stressed, know whom to hold accountable when power was shared by several actors. He was equally critical of the committee system in Congress, because the power of the various issues was concentrated to members who were responsible only to the voters in their own districts. Moreover, it was vulnerable to the pressure from lobbyists. He eventually reconsidered properly these opinions.
In 1911, Wilson became governor of New Jersey and in 1912, he went into battle for the presidency. As universitetsman and governor he had fought a tough battle against elitism in Democratic candidacy, he secured by portraying his rival, the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Champ Clark, as a party boss.
He was elected the U.S. President against the incumbent Republican William Taft and his representative, Theodore Roosevelt, who formed a new party, the Progressive Party, in practice, a rupture of the Republicans. He was re-elected in the presidential election in 1916 against Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes, which was the first time since 1832 that a Democrat has been re-elected to the presidency.
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