Social policy is a scientific and political discipline dedicated to studying (generating theory) and to intervene publicly (state or community) in the consequences material and moral of always uneven development of modern societies (industrialized and urbanized).
As a science and regulations and political activity (dual dimension), it presents the fundamental mission of serving the three major goals of contemporary social action: social justice (in the formal sense), social welfare (in a material sense) and social order (legal sense).
To write a really good research paper on the topic you have to know that as a science, social policy is constructed as a discipline of study and reflection that seeks to achieve a historical and even epistemological mediation between the demands of “economic” (the well-being) and “political” (common good) by a theoretical corpus itself.
As political activity, it is more specifically defined as a form of general politics (the activity of the government, the proposed program of political parties and activity of so-called social partners – unions and employers) ) by means of a public political system (social state of law, or communal forms of self-organization).
A notion that addresses the major historical forms of social policy first came from Germany (Gustav Schmoller) as the state means of intervention in the economy (“moralizing”) regulating the forms of assistance and protection of the contractual employee (hence it was linked to the world of labor law and labor relations). The second, in the current debate, born in England of Lord Beveridge’s hand during World War II, as the realization of a welfare state to care for the citizens from the “cradle to grave.” In the twentieth century it was transited across Western Europe, although with spacious and current national differences, “labor rights” as the main object of social policy, the “rights of citizenship” as the goal of this science and activity.
The Welfare State is the last and current mode of social policy. Develops the notion of “social state” of the previous model by the State direct intervention in satisfaction of objective (quantitative) and subjective (qualitative) needs of its citizens, according to the dominant ideology of the ruling political party. Mediating between liberal economy (through public intervention) and party democracy (so called “social consensus”), this State constitutionalises “social rights of citizenship,” publicly acknowledging, therefore, the social protection against the effects of social inequality and social imbalances of the Market. Born, based on the economic theories of J.M. Keynes in solving the so-called social issues or social problems (which in the nineteenth and early twentieth received the name “social question,” the problems generated in the lower classes by social transformations arising from the passage of the pre-industrial society to industrial society, while since the second half of the XX derivatives of transition from industrial society to society postindustrial were added.
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