Botany is detailed knowledge of the plant, which finds its applications in the field of medicine, pharmacology, nutrition, cosmetics, etc.
The term comes from ancient Greek Botanical ?????????, feminine of ?????????? word meaning regarding herbs, plants; ?????? which means herb, plant as well as feed or forage.
Like other forms of life, plants can be studied from different points of view, at the molecular level, genetic and biochemical, organelle, cell, tissue or organ, considering the plant individually, at the population or a plant community level.
At each level, the botanist may have to be interested in the classification (taxonomy), structure (external: morphologie (biology); internal: anatomy), or in the functioning (physiology) of a plant considered.
More specifically, the general botany covers taxonomy (description and differential diagnostic characters), systematic (enumeration and classification of taxa in a certain order), plant morphology (describing the organs or parts of plants), vegetable histology, plant physiology, plant biogeography and plant pathology. Some disciplines, such as Dendrology are specialized on a subset of plants.
Historically, the area studied in botany covers all organisms excluded from the animal kingdom. Such organisms as viruses and bacteria (studied in microbiology), fungi (studied in mycology), and algae (studied in phycology) are also studied by botanists.
Aristotle’s pupil Theophrastus (371-286 BC) Is considered the “father of botany.” Botanical works of Theophrastus may be regarded as a corpus of knowledge into a unified system of practice of agriculture, medicine and the works of scientists in this area of the ancient world.
The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder in his “Natural History” has brought all the knowledge his famous contemporaries had about the nature, he mentioned about 1000 species of plants, describing them accurately.
A big breakthrough of the European science of plants became a comprehensive and well-illustrated work of Francisco Hernandez “History of Plants of New Spain” (1570-1577), commissioned by Philip II. The book includes descriptions of more than 3000 plants and 500 animals that existed on the territory of modern Mexico.
Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus was a famous naturalist doctor, creator of the uniform system of classification of flora and fauna, compiled and greatly streamlined the biological knowledge of the previous period, which, even during his lifetime, has brought him worldwide fame.
Heinrich Johann Nepomuk Edler von Crantz was Austrian physician and botanist, professor at Vienna University (he became a doctor of medicine in 1750) published his Classis Cruciformium emendeta in 1769.
XIX century was marked by intensive development of the botany in general. A decisive influence on the systematics of the theory of evolution has had Charles Darwin.
The characteristic features of the present stage of development of Botany – blurring the distinction between the individual sectors and their integration. Development of new methods of research based on the achievements of physics and chemistry, has allowed to solve the problems previously inaccessible. Free example research paper on botany is an excellent way to learn how to write a good research proposal.
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